# Course Descriptions

**
ASTR 101 - Introduction to Astronomy**

Emphasis is placed on the role of observation in the evolution of our theories about the origins of the solar system, and of the size and structure of the universe.

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ASTR 119 - Astrobiology**

Where could aliens live, and what might they look like? This course is an examination of the prospects for extraterrestrial life. Topics include the origin and evolution of life on Earth, the habitability of Mars and Jovian moons, the nature and habitability of exoplanets, SETI, and the Fermi paradox. ***Prerequisite: Successful completion of 12 credit hours.***

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ASTR 201 - Solar System Astronomy**

This course is concerned with the description of the fundamental properties of our solar system. Topics will include: planetary interiors, surface structures and atmospheres, asteriods, comets and meteorites, and the formation of planetary systems.
*** Prerequisite: ASTR 101 ***

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ASTR 202 - Stars and Galaxies**

This course is concerned with the properties of the stars and galaxies. Topics will include: observational methods, stellar populations, stellar evolution, galactic structure, and the large-scale structure of the universe.
*** Prerequisite: ASTR 101 ***

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ASTR 300 - Astronomical Observation**

This course will teach astronomical observing techniques through hands-on telescopic observations, remote telescopic observations, and data mining. It will cover various techniques of data reduction for different observational goals, as well as for astrophotography and pleasure.
***Prerequisites PHYS 111 and PHYS 112.***

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PHYS 051 - Physics Co-op Work Term**

Four month co-op work term #1 approved by the department and arranged by the co-op coordinator.

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PHYS 052 - Physics Co-op Work Term #2**

Four-month co-op work term #2 approved by the department and arranged by the co-op coordinator.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 051 ***

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PHYS 053 - Physics Co-op Work Term #3**

Four-month co-op work term #3 approved by the department and arranged by the co-op coordinator.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 052 ***

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PHYS 054 - Physics Co-op Work Term #4**

Four-month co-op work term #4 approved by the department and arranged by the co-op coordinator.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 053 ***

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PHYS 055 - Physics Co-op Work Term #5**

Four-month Co-op work term #5 approved by the department and arranged by the Co-op coordinator.

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PHYS 103 - Essential Physics: Ideas and Applications**

This is an introductory course about the fundamental and modern ideas in physics and their applications in technological developments. The essential mathematical skills will be developed and applied to everyday physics in an interactive and conceptual learning environment.
*Note: With the exclusion of PHYS 140 and PHYS 142, PHYS 103 may not be taken for credit if a student has previously received credit for PHYS 109 or a higher number physics course.*

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PHYS 109 - General Physics I**

General algebra-based physics, including classical mechanics and geometrical optics.
***Prerequisite: Pre-Calculus 30 or Calculus 30 or Math B30 and C30 or Math 102.***
* Note: May not be taken for credit if a student has received credit for PHYS 111 or PHYS 112. Students cannot receive credit for both PHYS 105 and PHYS 109. *

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PHYS 111 - Mechanics**

Kinematics in one, two and three dimensions, dynamics of particles and rigid bodies, including work, energy, and rotational kinematics and dynamics.
*** Prerequisite: Physics 30 and MATH 110. Concurrent enrolment allowed. ***

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PHYS 112 - Waves and Optics**

A course dealing with oscillations, wave motion, sound and geometrical and physical optics.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 111 (recommended) or 109 or 119, and MATH 110 (may be taken concurrently) ***

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PHYS 119 - General Physics II**

A continuation of PHYS 109: Fluid mechanics, heat and thermodynamics, waves, sound, radiation, electrostatics and electric current.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 109 or ENGG 140 ***
*Note: Phys 119 may not be taken for credit if a student has previously received credit for Phys 111 or Phys 112*

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PHYS 140 - Physics of Energy and the Environment**

An exploration of the energy used in a wide variety of systems including cars and homes. Physical concepts will be applied to various energy production schemes and usages found in our lives. We will discuss today's dominant energy sources and the alternative energy sources of tomorrow. This semi quantitative course will provide a scientific foundation for the energy issues facing society. The course materials contain examples with Indigenous elements. No physics background is required.

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PHYS 142 - From Quarks to the Cosmos**

A conceptual approach will be used in this course which is directed towards liberal arts students. The aim is to understand the physical world, from the microscopic (building blocks of nature), through the macroscopic (everyday phenomena), to the galactic (universe). Only simple algebra will be employed. *Note: Physics majors may not take this course for credit*

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PHYS 201 - Electricity and Magnetism**

An introduction to electricity and magnetism for science and engineering students, covering the topics of electrostatics, D.C. circuits, magnetism, and electromagnetic induction.
*** Prerequisite: MATH 213 and one of PHYS 111, 112 or 119. Math 213 may be taken concurrently.***

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PHYS 202 - Classical Mechanics I**

A course in intermediate mechanics for physics majors and honours students as well as engineering students. Topics include motion of systems of particles and rigid bodies, accelerated reference frames, and central forces.
***Prerequisite: MATH 213 and one of PHYS 111, 112 or 119. MATH 213 may be taken concurrently.***

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PHYS 219 - Introductory Radiation Science and Biophysics**

Radioactivity exists naturally in the soil, water, and air in variety of forms. Beneficial uses of manmade radiation include energy production, medical diagnoses and treatments, transportation safety, precision industrial measurements. This course covers the principles of radiation science and explores safe uses of radiation for betterment of our lives.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 109 or PHYS 111***

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PHYS 240 - Technological and Engineering Applications of Modern Physics**

This class takes you on a tour of how the power of special relativity, quantum and subatomic physics is harnessed to create technological and engineering developments, such as nuclear reactors, lasers, integrated circuits, superconductors, liquid crystal displays, quantum encryption, GPS, medical imaging devices and photonics.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 119***

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PHYS 242 - Introduction to Modern Physics**

Special theory of relativity, introduction to wave mechanics, early quantum physics, Bohr atom, radioactivity, and nuclear reactions.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 201 ***

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PHYS 251 - Mathematical Physics I**

Curvilinear co-ordinates, partial differential equations, boundary value and initial value problems with special emphasis on physical systems, series solutions and special functions.
***Prerequisite: MATH 213 and 217.***

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PHYS 261 - Heat and Thermodynamics**

An introduction to the concepts of temperature and thermometry, the laws of thermodynamics and applications, kinetic theory.
***Prerequisite: MATH 111 and one of PHYS 111 or PHYS 112.***
*NOTE: PHYS 119 may be substituted for PHYS 112, with permission of the Department Head.*

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PHYS 301 - Classical Mechanics II**

The mechanics of rigid bodies, Hamilton and Lagrange equations of motion and their applications, oscillations and normal co-ordinates.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 202, MATH 213 and 217. MATH 217 may be taken concurrently. ***

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PHYS 311 - Electromagnetism I**

Maxwell's equations, dielectric and magnetic properties of matter, and multipoles.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 201, MATH 213 and 217. MATH 217 may be taken concurrently. ***

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PHYS 319 - Health Physics**

A course on radiation, its effects and protection of biological systems. Interaction of radiation with matter. Radiation detection and measurement. Introduction to dosimetry and dose calculations. Health instrumentation and risk management. ***Preequisite: PHYS 242 or PHYS 219***

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PHYS 322 - Physical Optics and Electromagnetic (E/M) Radiation**

Maxwell's equations and E/M waves, the E/M spectrum, energy of an E/M wave, the Poynting vector, optics of planar surfaces, interference, coherence, polarization, Rayleigh scattering, Cerenkov radiation, and applications including waveguides and antennas.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 311 ***

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PHYS 342 - Atomic Physics**

Operator formalism of modern quantum mechanics, commutation relations, the Schrodinger equation and its applications for the harmonic oscillator and one-dimensional potentials, central fields, the hydrogen atom and complex atoms.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 112, 242 and 251. PHYS 251 may be taken concurrently.***
*Note: PHYS 119 may be substituted for PHYS 112, with permission of the Department Head.*

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PHYS 352 - Mathematical Physics II**

Tensor calculus, group theory, integral transforms, and Green's functions. ***Prerequisite: MATH 312 and PHYS 251***

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PHYS 362 - Statistical Mechanics**

The theory of classical and quantum statistical mechanics and applications to systems of physical interest including lasers and atomic lasers.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 261 and 342. PHYS 342 may be taken concurrently. ***

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PHYS 372 - Modern Experimental Physics**

An intermediate laboratory course, normally taken by physic majors and honours students in their third year, from subject matter covered in third-year courses.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 201, 202, 242, and 261***

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PHYS 377 - Introductory Electronics**

Ever wondered what makes all the electronic gadgetry around you tick? Want to learn how to read schematics, solder, program and build circuits, but unsure where to begin? This introductory course on the theory and operation of basic analogue and digital electronics, circuit design, implementation and application is for you. ***Prerequisite: PHYS 201***

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PHYS 392 - Physics of Continuous Media**

An introduction to elasticity and elastic moduli, fracture, fluid flow, viscous effects, compressible flow ideal fluid flow and applications.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 202, MATH 213, and MATH 217. With permission of the Department Head, all courses may be taken concurrently.***

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PHYS 401 - Quantum Mechanics I**

Axiomatic formulation, representations, angular momentum and spin, pertubation theory, systems of identical particles, and matrix mechanics.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 301 and 342 ***

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PHYS 411 - Advanced Classical Mechanics**

Hamilton-Langrange equations, Hamilton-Jacobi theory and applications, transformation theory, and special relativity.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 251 and PHYS 301***

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PHYS 421 - Solid State Physics**

Physics of crystalline solids, binding, energy bands, lattice vibrations, and electronic properties.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 342***

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PHYS 430 - Introduction to General Relativity**

Law of universal gravitation, the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass, Riemannian geometry, Einstein's field equations, Schwarzschild solution, black holes and gravitational collapse, cosmology.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 411 ***

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PHYS 432 - Nuclear Physics**

Radioactive decay mechanisms, interactions of nuclear radiation with matter, spectroscopy, nuclear models, and applications to medicine, material science, and engineering.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 342 and 401. PHYS 401 may be taken concurrently. ***

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PHYS 442 - Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics**

Classification of particles, particle detectors and accelerators, invariance and conservation laws, hadron-hadron interactions, weak interactions, quark model and group theory, and introduction to QCD.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 401 ***

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PHYS 471 - Modern Experimental Physics II**

Fourth-year lab combining modern experimental techniques together with material from 400-level courses.
*** Prerequisite: PHYS 301, 311, 342, and 372 ***

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PHYS 491AA - Quantum Mechanics II**

Aspects of approximation methods in quantum mechanics with applications to physical processes, Unitary transformations and vector addition coefficients, An introduction to path integral formalism in quantum mechanics, Relativistic quantum mechanics.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 401***

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PHYS 492AA - Stellar Structure and Evolution**

The physics of stellar interiors and stellar evolution will be reviewed. The course will look at the development of the equations of stellar structure and the methods by which they can be solved. The evolution of our Sun, from formation through to its white dwarf stage will be investigated.

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PHYS 498 - Senior Research**

This course must be taken by all honours physics students, and by applied physics cooperative students in one semester of their final year of study. Students are required to attend all seminars and to present an oral presentation and written report on a topic determined in consultation with the PHYS 498/499 coordinator.
***Prerequisite: Completion of 90 credit hours.***
*Note: Permission of the Department Head is required to register.*

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PHYS 499 - Honours Thesis**

This course must be taken by all honours physics students. Students are required to attend all seminars and to present an oral presentation and written report on a topic determined in consultation with the PHYS 498/499 coordinator.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 498.***
*Note: Permission of the Department Head is required to register.*

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PHYS 800 - Classical Electrodynamics**

Simple radiating systems, scattering, diffraction; covariant formulation of electrodynamics; the Lienard- Wiechert portentials and the field of a uniformly moving and accelerated electron; the motion of charged particles in e-m fields; Hamiltonian formulation of Maxwell's equations.
***Prerequisite: Enrolment is restricted to graduate students in Physics, except with permission of the department head.***
*Prior exposure to Maxwell's equations, dielectric and magnetic properties of matter, multipoles, and concepts in physical optics and elctromagnetic radiation is expected.

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PHYS 801 - Adv Quantum Mechanics**

Unitary transformations; dynamical equations; symmetries and conservation laws; angular momentum; density operator formalism; creation and annihilation operators; relativistic quant6um mechanics; scattering theory.
***Prerequisite: Enrollment restricted to graduate students in Physics, except with permission of the Department Head.***
*Familiarity with axiomatic formulation, representations, angular momentum and spin, perturbation theory, systems of identical particles, and matrix mechanics is expected.*

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PHYS 803 - Quantum Field Theory**

Canonical quantization; free scalar, vector and spinor fields; interacting fields; pertubation theory and and Feynman diagrams; quantum electrodynamics, renormalization, gauge fields.
***Prerequisite: Enrolment restricted to graduate students in Physics, except with permission of Department Head.***
*Familiarity with axiomatic formulation, representations, angular momentum and spin, perturbation theory, systems of identical particles, and matrix mechanics is expected.*

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PHYS 805 - Quantum Field Theory II**

Path integral formalism, renormalization, renormalization group, operator product expansions. *** Prerequisite: PHYS 803 ***

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PHYS 810 - General Relativity**

Mathematics of general relativity; unconnected manifold, affinely connected manifolds and metrically connected manifolds; Physics of general relativity, conversation laws and variational principles.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 411 or PHYS 811.***
*Note: Students may credit for one of PHYS 430 or PHYS 810.**

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PHYS 811 - Advanced Classical Mechanics**

Hamilton-Lagrange equations. Hamilton-Jacobi theory and applications, transformation theory, and special relativity.
***Prerequisite: Enrolment restricted to graduate students in Physics, except with permission of the Department Head.***
*Note: Students may receive credit for one of PHYS 411 or PHYS 811.*

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PHYS 831 - Advanced Nuclear Physics**

Review of symmetries; nucleon-nucleon interaction and polarization observables; nuclear models; the nuclear many-body problem; Hartree-Fock potential; random-phase approximation; quasi-particles; e-m interactions with nuclei the weak interaction.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 801 and PHYS 432 or permission of the instructor.***

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PHYS 833 - Nuclear Reactions**

Direct and compound neuclear reactions; plane wave theory; scattering theory; phenomenological optical potential, DWBA, DWBA amplitudes and DWIA; coupled channels; microscopic theory of inelastic nucleon-nucleus scattering.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 801 and PHYS 432 or permission of the instructor.***

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PHYS 834 - Inter Energy Nuclear Physics**

Meson exchange theories; accelerators, experimental techinques; electron-nucleon and electron nucleon interaction, nucleon-nucleon scattering; nucleon-nucleus interactions; pion-nucleus interactions; relativistic kinematics.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 831 or PHYS 833.***

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PHYS 835 - Elementary Particles**

Symmetries and quantum numbers of leptons, hadrons, and quarks; e-m weak, and strong interactions; charm and heavy quark hadrons and hadron spectroscopy; introduction to QCD; unified gauge theories; selected topics beyond the standard model.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 803 and PHYS 442 or permission of the instructor.***

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PHYS 838 - The Structure of the Proton**

Nucleon electromagnetic form factors and structure functions, Quark-Parton Model, Elements of Perturbative QCD, treatment of Deep Inelastic Scattering within QCD, and various aspects of non-Perturbative QCD including incorporation of transverse degrees of freedom.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 835.***
*Note: Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 890AE and PHYS 838.*

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PHYS 839 - The Structure of the Proton II**

The Structure of the Proton for Ph.D. students in Subatomic Physics. Topics include: Parton densities at small x, Hadronic form factors in perturbative QCD, QCD factorization, Generalized Parton Distributions, Nucleon Spin Structure, Nuclear EMC Effect.
***Prerequisite: PHYS 838.***
*Note: Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 890AF and PHYS 839.*

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PHYS 871 - Experimental Methods of Subatomic Physics**

Basic techniques of experimental nuclear and Particle physics. Interaction of particles in matter; cosmic rays and natural radiation; particle accelerators and beam optics; particle detection techniques; data acquisition systems. ***Prerequisite: Permission of Department Head***

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PHYS 875 - Synchrotron Radiation Techniques and Their Applications**

The physics and experimental aspects of synchrotron radiation light sources and the different methods applied to areas from physics to biology. Techniques such as hard and soft X-ray spectroscopy and imaging, infrared microscopy and spectrometry and X-ray diffraction will be covered in detail.
***Prerequisite: Permission of Department Head.***
*Note: Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 890AG and PHYS 875.*

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PHYS 877 - Tomographic Image Reconstruction**

The course will primarily focus on positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation, data collection, sources of noise in data, image reconstruction and analysis. Topics common to many tomographic imaging modalities; including reconstruction of images from non-uniformly sampled data, from projections, from undersampled data, and image auto-focusing, will be discussed.
***Prerequisite: Permission of Department Head.***
*Note: Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 890AJ and PHYS 877.*

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PHYS 878 - Computer Simulations in Particle Physics**

The course has emphasis on practical tasks with four major components: review of C++ programming applicable in particle physics, data analysis with ROOT, detector simulations with GEANT4 and optional topics (e.g. python, event generators, fast detector simulations, code repositories, batch queueing systems, shell scripts).
***Prerequisite: Permission of Department Head.***
*Note: Students may receive credit for only one of PHYS 887AE and PHYS 888.*

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PHYS 885 - Approved Summer School**

This course is available to full-time Physics Graduate students in good standing. Students will participate in a summer school offered by an approved institute. The school and credit award must be approved by a committee consisting of Department Head, Physics Graduate Coordinator, and the student supervisor.
***Prerequisite: Permission of the Department Head.***
*Note: This class can be taken more than once in a program, for a maximum total of 3 credit hours, provided the institute and course content are different each time.*

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PHYS 887AF - Selected Machine Learning Topics in Physics**

Machine Learning approaches to subatomic physics particle identification will be explored. The class expectations include comprehensive literature searches and essays. Hands-on projects will include processing simulated data towards detector and experimental optimization.

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PHYS 887AG - Physics and Engineering of Particle Accelerators**

The course will provide an introduction to the physics, technology and some engineering aspects of particle accelerators with focus on proton and ion accelerator technology. The course will include a survey of existing accelerator types and an introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam optics.

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PHYS 887GT - Group Thory 1**

A systematic developments of the theory of finite groups and their representations, application to various physical systems, the theory of continuous groups; SO(2) SO(3), the SU(N) groups and their applications. The student(s) will be required to do homework assignments.

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PHYS 890AH - Advanced Methods in Statistical Analysis Applied to Physics **

The course will explore advance statistics methods applied to physics data analysis. More specifically, it will cover the definition of significance of a measurement and the construction of confidencial level intervals based on Bayesian and Frequentist Statistics, as well as the main differences between these two methods.

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PHYS 890BA - Hadron-Hadron Scattering in Neutrino Production Experiments**

Directed readings. Hadron-hadron scattering cross sections are a major factor in determining the production of neutrinos in long baseline and other neutrino experiments. This class will focus on the quasi-elastic and inelastic hadron scattering at the low GeV-scale, which are essential factors in understanding neutrino production characteristics.

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PHYS 900 - Seminar**

Graduate students enrolled in this course will present a 50 minute seminar to the Department of Physics. The subject of the seminar will be decided in consultation with student’s supervisor.

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PHYS 901 - Research**

Thesis research.

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PHYS 902 - PHYS 902 PhD Comprehensive Exam**

PhD students must pass the Physics Departmental Comprehensive Exam. Grading is Pass/Fail.
***Pre-requisite: Permission of the Department Head.***