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Referencing Styles

2. Referencing Styles
In your own academic work, you will need to find out what format you are expected to use for your references - this is usually stated with the description of your assignments in your course outline. If you are unsure, please consult the course professor, teaching assistant, or visit the Citation/Style LibGuides from the University of Regina Library website for more information. Below are some examples of reference styles:

2.1. Tools/Help with Referencing
Time and Planning: First and foremost, give yourself time for your assignment. Keep careful track of what you read, and if there are ideas or quotes you think you will use, find a system to label them with the information you will need to reference them later.RefWorks: The University of Regina provides you with free access to a very helpful tool called RefWorks. RefWorks is a web-based bibliographic management tool (citation manager) that allows you to create a database of citations or references to resources (books, journal articles, web sites, etc.). It facilitates the insertion of citations within a research paper as in-text references, footnotes, or endnotes, and the creation of a formatted bibliography using a citation style of choice. All major citation styles are supported (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.).

Find out more about RefWorks

University of Regina Library: The library has lots of links to resources on referencing materials in your academic work as well as several LibGuides on the most commonly used style guides. Do ask a librarian if you are unsure or need help.

Other sources of Help:

3. How to Cite Right

There are 2 elements needed to correctly document a source:

1. In your text: Whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of another, you are required to cite its source, either by way of parenthetical documentation (bibliographic information within parentheses) or by means of a footnote/endnote (bibliographic information at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper).

Example MLA style:
Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

**Note you can place the author′s name in the citation (as above) or directly in the text. This is called a signal phrase (see below).

Burke explains that human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (3).

Long quotations: Each reference style will have specific directions for direct quotations that are more than 3 or 4 lines. For example, for APA and MLA styles the following rules apply:

  • In most cases, use a colon to introduce the quotation.
  • Indent the quotation one inch from the left margin.
  • Double-space the quotation.
  • Do not use quotation marks.
  • Place the parenthetical citation (author and page number) after the period (or other mark of punctuation) that closes the block quotation.

2. In your Bibliography/Works Cited/Reference List: Most style manuals require you to assemble a list of the works that you have cited in your paper. This list, included at the end of your paper, may be termed “Works Cited”, a “Reference List”, a “Bibliography”, or some similar term.

Example APA style:
Fleming T. (1997). Liberty!: The American revolution. New York: Viking.

Important elements in your Bibliography/Works Cited/Reference List
There are essential pieces of information that a writer must provide about the articles, texts and other sources they have drawn on. Some or all of them are necessary to uniquely identify and locate the original source, or to find similar materials.

Author, editor, Group/Association (name and initials)
Title of the work (where applicable)
Title of the book or journal where the work came from
Volume number (of a journal or series of books)
Place of publication
Date of publication
Web page address (URL or DOI)

More resources on how to cite sources using different style guides.