Undergraduate Course Descriptions

GEOL 051 - Geology Co-op Work Term 1
Four month Co-op work term approved by the department and arranged by the Co-op coordinator.

GEOL 052 - Geology Co-op Work Term 2
Four month Co-op work term approved by the department and arranged by the Co-op coordinator. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 051***

GEOL 053 - Geology Co-op Work Term 3
Four month Co-op work term approved by the department and arranged by the Co-op coordinator. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 052***

GEOL 054 - Geology Co-op Work Term 4
Four month Co-op work term approved by the department and arranged by the Co-op coordinator. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 053***

GEOL 102 - Earth and Environment
The nature of the earth. Plate tectonics and the geological time scale. Earthquakes, volcanism and surface processes with reference to their effect on the human environment. Earth resources, waste disposal, and pollution in a geological context.

GEOL 201 - Internal Processes of the Earth
Internal earth processes and materials composing the earth. The geological time scale. Deformation and structures of earth materials. Plate tectonics, continental drift and mountain building. Earth resources. *** Prerequisite: Students must pass GEOL 102 with a minimum grade of 60%. ***

GEOL 210 - Mineralogy I
Crystal structure and symmetry, Chemistry and occurrence of minerals. Mineral optics. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 201 with a minimum grade of 65%*** *Note: GEOL 201 may be taken concurrently with a minimum grade of 75% in GEOL 102.* *Note: Students are strongly recommended to take CHEM 104 prior to, or concurrently, with this course.*

GEOL 211 - Mineralogy II
Mineral phase diagrams. Minerals of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Mineral paragenesis. Geothermometers and geobarometers. X-ray techniques. Introduction to thin section identification of minerals in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 201, GEOL 210 and CHEM 104.*** *Note: It is strongly recommended that students register in CHEM 105 prior to, or concurrently with, this course.*

GEOL 240 - Earth System History
Inter-connected evolution of atmosphere-biosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere over the course of geologic time; its forcing mechanisms, interactions, and feedbacks. Major physical and biological global events emphasizing North America and Western Canada. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 102 ***

GEOL 241 - Paleontology
Classification, morphology, evolution, paleoecology, and stratigraphic distribution of the main groups of fossils. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 240.*** *Note: GEOL 241 is a Winter only course.*

GEOL 270 - Earth Resources and the Environment
An intermediate course focused on origin, global distribution, use and environmental impact of earth resources, metallic minerals, energy resources, industrial minerals, and the social, economic and political implications of mineral resources. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 102 *** * Note: GEOL 270 may not be taken by students who have passed GEOL 472 and/or GEOL 470. *

GEOL 307 - Geochemistry
Principles of crystal, aqueous, and isotopic geochemistry, and applications to igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, and geochemical exploration. Principles of radiometric dating of rocks. Practical problem solving in applied geochemistry. ***Prerequisite: CHEM 105 and one of GEOL 201 or GEOL 211 (GEOL 211 is strongly recommended).***

GEOL 313 - Igneous Petrology
Classification and genesis of igneous rocks. Introduction to the common igneous rock suites and associations. Study of hand specimens and thin sections. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 211 and GEOL 307; GEOL 307 and GEOL 313 may be taken concurrently if GEOL 211 has been completed successfully. CHEM 250 is recommended.***

GEOL 314 - Sedimentology
Classification, genesis, and petrology of sedimentary rocks. Sediment transport and deposition processes. Sedimentary environments. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 201 and 211 ***

GEOL 315 - Metamorphic Petrology
Metamorphic minerals, rocks and processes. Agencies and occurrence of metamorphism. Metamorphic grade, zones and facies. Metamorphic reactions and the petrogenic grid. Metamorphic textures. Anatexis and development of migmatites. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 211 and GEOL 307 (GEOL 307 may be taken concurretly.)***

GEOL 329 - Soils and Sediment Analysis
Introduction to the analysis, properties and classification of soils and sediments. Includes an understanding of the distribution of soil types at local, regional and global scales due to environmental indices like climate, geology, water, and vegetation. This course uses experiential learning where students conduct a field and laboratory study of their own field site, using basic measurements of soils and sediments. ***Prerequisite: GES 121.*** *Note: Students may receive credit for one of GEOL 329, GEOL 494AD, GEOG 329, or GES 329.*

GEOL 340 - Stratigraphy
Principles and problems of stratigraphy. Geological history of North America in its world setting. Index fossils. Geological maps. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 220 or 241, 240 and 314. GEOL 314 may be taken concurrently***

GEOL 353 - Structural Geology I
Primary structural features. Geometry of structural features including simple folds and faults. Relationship between structural features and land forms. Geological maps and air photos. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 201 and GEOL 211 ***

GEOL 396 - Geology Field School I
Geological study and mapping in an area of sedimentary rocks. Supervised study for several days during the Spring/Summer semester. An additional charge will be assessed to cover accommodation and meals. ***Prerequisite: Six courses (18 credit hours) in Geology.*** *Note: Students must advise the Geology Department of their intent to register prior to February 15.* *Additional Fee: $1000.*

GEOL 400AA - Undergraduate Thesis in Geology - First Half
Original investigation under the supervision of a faculty member. A thesis describing the research is written and presented, and defended. * Note: This is the first half of GEOL 400 Thesis, and should be taken prior to GEOL 400AB * *** Prerequisite: GEOL 313, 314, 315, 340, 453, 396 ***

GEOL 400AB - Thesis - Second Half
Original investigation under the supervision of a faculty member. A thesis describing the research is written and presented, and defended. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 313, 314, 315, 340, 453, 396, and GEOL 400AA.*** *Note: This is the second half of GEOL 400 Thesis, and should be taken after GEOL 400AA.*

GEOL 400AC - Undergraduate Thesis in Geology
Original investigation under the supervision of a faculty member. A thesis describing the research is written and presented, and defended. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 313, 314, 315, 340, 453, 396 & a minimum GPA of 70%.*** **Permission of the Dpeartment Head is required to register.***

GEOL 413 - Igneous Petrogenesis and Processes
Advanced study of the processes of magma formation and crystallization. Characteristics and genesis of igneous rock suites and associations. Study of igneous rock suites in hand specimen and thin section. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 313 *** * Note: Not offered every year. *

GEOL 414 - Geology of Siliciclastic Rocks
Depositional models using modern sedimentary analogues to interpret ancient environments. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 314 and GEOL 340 ***

GEOL 416 - Geology of Carbonate Rocks
Modern and ancient depositional environments of limestone and dolomite. Diagenetic processes affecting carbonate rocks. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 307 and 314, GEOL 307 may be taken concurrently ***

GEOL 429 - Glacial and Periglacial Geoscience
An advanced course relating to cold environments and physical processes. Topics cover the physics of glaciers, glacial and periglacial processes and resulting erosional and depositional landforms and landscapes. Special attention will be paid to the Canadian Arctic environment and the history of glaciation in North America. Lab time is used to conduct short experiments, measure the snow pack and examine glacial sediments to add to our understanding of glacial processes. ***Prerequisite: GES 323.*** *Note: Students may receive credit for one of GEOL 429, GEOG 429, GES 429, or GEOG 423AA.*

GEOL 430 - Quaternary Environments and the Anthropocene
This course covers general aspects of the Quaternary Period with emphasis on the Holocene and Anthropocene. It includes the main methods employed to reconstruct Quaternary environments, main climatic oscillations, environmental change and impacts by human activities. It emphasizes the importance of paleo-environmental reconstructions in the conservation and management of present ecosystems. ***Prerequisite: Two 300 level courses in Geology or Geography and/or permission from the Department Head.*** *Note: Students with credit for GEOL490AK cannot take GEOL 430 for credit.*

GEOL 451 - Geology of North America
Geology and geological history of North America, with emphasis on Canada. The nature of continental assembly, crustal evolution and geodynamics through time, and comparative studies of lithostratigraphy and magmatism in relation to geotectonic environment. Phanerozoic sedimentary basins. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 313, 315, 340, and GEOL 453 or 350 *** * Note: Not offered every year. *

GEOL 453 - Structural Geology ll
Morphology, nomenclature and classification of large and small scale structures in the earth's crust. Natural stress-strain relations and structural analysis and interpretation. Major tectonic features of the earth. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 353 and PHYS 109 ***

GEOL 454 - Global Tectonics and Earth History
Internal structure and processes of the earth, formation and evolution in the context of the solar system, mantle and crustal processes through time, plate tectonics and orogenic activity, supercontinent cysles, case studies of orogenic belts. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 453 (may be taken concurrently).*** *Note: Not offered every year.* *Note: Credit cannot be held for both GEOL 452 and GEOL 454. *

GEOL 460 - Applied Exploration Geophysics
Introduction to geophysical methods including seismic, magnetics, gravity, electromagnetics, IP, radiometrics, and remote sensing. Application to finding and developing petroleum pools and mineral deposits. *** Prerequisite: MATH 110, PHYS 112 or PHYS 119 and GEOL 201 or permission of the Department Head ***

GEOL 461 - Geomodelling
Hands-on computer-based data analysis and processing, applied geostatistics, geospatial studies, and geological modelling methods. Creating 2D and 3D surface-subsurface geological models from diverse data sources including (but not limited to): field maps, boreholes, geochemistry data, structural data, digital elevations, hydrological and geophysical data. Students will gain experience with various software platforms currently used in the Geosciences, including ESRI’s ArcGIS Pro. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 313, GEOL 314, GEOL 315, and GEOL 353.*** *Note: Students may receive credit for one of GEOL 461 or GEOL 490AJ.*

GEOL 470 - Metallic Mineral Deposits
Geologic characteristics and genesis of metallic mineral deposits. Basic concept of mineral exploration. Ore mineralogy and petrology. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 313, 314, and 353.***

GEOL 472 - Petroleum Geology
Origin, accumulation, and occurrence of petroleum. Reservoir rocks, fluids and traps. Reservoir conditions and mechanics. Mechanical logs and subsurface methods. Application to finding and developing petroleum pools. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 340 or permission of Department Head ***

GEOL 473 - Petroleum Geochemistry
Production of organic matter and its accumulation and transformation in sedimentary rocks. Kerogen and the generation, migration and alteration of petroleum. Formation of coal. Application to oil and gas exploration. *** Corequisite: GEOL 472 or permission of Department Head *** *Note: Not offered every year.*

GEOL 474 - Environmental Hydrogeology
Water chemistry, water quality and contamination, discussion of remediation (clean-up) of soil and water, and computer modeling of various hydrogeological problems. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 307*** *Note: Not offered every year*

GEOL 476 - Principles of Groundwater Flow
Principles of groundwater flow, properties of aquifers, geology of groundwater occurrence, and regional groundwater flow with examples from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 314 and MATH 110 or permission of the Department Head.*** *Note: Students may receive credit for one of GEOL 476 or GEOL 490AO.*

GEOL 477 - Geology of Uranium Deposits
Geochemistry of uranium; geological characteristics and genesis of various types of uranium deposits, with an emphasis on the unconformity-related uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin. ***Prerequisite: GEOL 307, GEOL 313, GEOL 314, GEOL 315, and GEOL 335, or must obtain permission of the instructor to register for the course.*** *Note: Students may receive credit for one of GEOL 477 or GEOL 490AM.*

GEOL 490AB - Petrographic and Geochemical Methods in the Study of Carbonate Diagenesis
Petrographic (staining, transmitted light microscopy, cathodoluminescence, fuorescence), fluid inclusion, and C-O-Sr isotopic studies of carboneate diagenesis. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 314 ***

GEOL 490AC - Petroleum Geology of the Ukraine
An examination of exploration methodologies utilized by Ukrainian petroleum exploration gelogists. An overview of the geology of the Ukraine and oil/gas fields of the Ukraine. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 472 ***

GEOL 490AD - Geology of Columbia
Geology of Colombia is a field based course. The topics covered in this course include: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic petrology, tectonics, geomorphology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, volcanology and natural hazards. *** Prerequisites: Geol 250, Geol 313, Geol 314, Geol 315, Geol 340 and Geol 396 *** ** Note: Students will find it beneficial to have also taken Geol 496 **

GEOL 490AF - Fluid Inclusion Studies
Identification and classification of fluid inclusions. Microthermometric measurements. Interpretation and application to solve geologic problems. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 471 ***

GEOL 490AG - Geothermometers and Paleo-geothermal Gradients
Principles of three geothermometers (fluid inclusions, vitrinite reflectance, and raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous mattter). Application of these methods to reconstruct paleo-geothermal gradients.

GEOL 490AH - Remote Sensing and GIS Application in Geological and Geophysical Mapping
Cover the use of remote sensing and GIS techniques in geological and geophysical mapping. An integrated geological mapping approach is followed in which geological maps are digitized and re-interpreted in a GIS environment on the basis of aerial photographs, satellite imagery and airborne geophysical data. The main subjects in this course are airborne geophysics, geological remote sensing, integrated image interpretation and geological mapping methodology.

GEOL 490AI - Paleoenvironmental micropaleontology
*** Prerequisites: Geol 241, Geol 340 *

GEOL 490AL - Watershed Hydrology
This course provides an introduction to watershed hydrology including extreme runoff events recorded in the sedimentary record. It is a research-oriented course intended to provide students with an overview of hillslope hydrology and sediment transport accumulation from a process perspective. ***Prerequisite: GEOG 323 or permission of the Geology Department Head*** *Note: Students can receive credit for either GEOL 490AL or GEOG 497AA but not both.*

GEOL 490AN - Geomicrobiology
Fundamentals of environmental microbiology in the context of Earth Sciences with an emphasis on the influence of microbes on elemental cycling and metal solubility. Course topics includes microbes in mine wastes, microbe-mineral integrations and the role of microbes in redox zonation in natural and contaminated environments. *** Prerequisite: GEOL 307 or taken concurently, or special permission of the instructor. ***

GEOL 490AO - Directed Studies in Groundwater Flow
This course provides an overview of the principles underlying groundwater flow including aquifer properties and regional groundwater flow. Examples will draw from instances within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. **Permission of the Department Head is required to register.** *Note: Students may receive credit for one of GEOL 490AO or GEOL 476.*

GEOL 492AB - Geochemistry
Introduction to geochemistry: The elements, analytical techniques, isotope geology and geochronology, exploration geochemistry, aspects of the geochemistry of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. *** Prerequisite: CHEM 230 and two of either GEOL 313, 314, or 315, or permission of Department Head ***

GEOL 492AC - Igneous processes and volcanism
Directed readings and discussions in the general areas of igneous petrology, the origins and evolution of magma, and volcanic phenomena. Registration for this course requires special approval from the instructor. ***Prerequisite: GEOL210, GEOL211, GEOL 307 and GEOL313***

GEOL 494AB - Carbonate Reservoir Geology
The course is intended to give the participant practical experience in observing and describing carbonate rocks, and to use pertinent literature to interpret their dispositional environments. The student will also identify processes that have changed the original character of the rocks and have influenced their hydrocarbon-bearing potential.

GEOL 494AD - Soil Science
Introduction to the properties, and classification of soil. The geography of soil at local, regional, and global scales. Relationship of soil to geomorphology, climate, water, vegetation, and environmental change. *** Prerequisite: GEOG 221 ***

GEOL 495AB - Quaternary Geology
A survey of the Quarternary Geology of the Earth, with particular emphasis on the history and record of glacial advance and retreat in North America. Critical review of driving mechanisms. *** Prerequisites: GEOG 323 or GEOL 429 or GEOG 429 with minimum grades of 60%. Concurrent enrolment allowed. Or permission of instuctor. ***

GEOL 495AC - Late Cretaeous to recent Marine Paleoecology and Sedimentology
An advanced course that addresses the paleoecology and associated sedimentary environment of ancient seas. An examination of the marine ecosystems in selected time periods from the Late Cretaceous (75 mya) to the present. Emphases are placed on the changes in invertebrate assemblages and accompanying marine vertebrates over vast periods of time. The topic includes an understanding of fossil preservation and the conditions and environments conducive to preservation in marine systems.

GEOL 495AD - Advanced structural analysis with application to mineral deposit exploration
Theortetical and practical analysis/interpretation of rock structures as a guide to mineral exploration. This course will be largely assignment-based with assignments/projects involving map analysis of structures complemented by sterographic analysis and cross-section construction in an effort to determine the structural controls of mineral deposits in a variety of settings. ***Pre-requisite: Geol 453 and permission of instructor and Dept. Head.***

GEOL 495AE - Directed Study in Glacial Geoscience
An advanced course relating to Glacial Geoscience, in which the student conducts a directed study in Glacial processes and cold environments under the supervision of a faculty member. Topics include glacial and periglacial processes and an exploration fo the current theories and controversies on the formation of glacial landforms and landscapes. Special attention will be paid to North America, and the Canadian Arctic environments, and the history of glaciations in Canada during the Quaternary period. ***Prerequisite GEOG 323.***

GEOL 496 - Geology Field Camp II
Geological mapping and study in an area of crystalline rock. Supervised study for several days during the Spring/Summer semester. An additional charge will be assessed to cover accommodation and meals. ***Prerequisites: GEOL 396, 353, 313, 314, and 315.*** *Note:students must advise the the Geology Department of their intent to register prior to May 15.* *Additional Fee: $1000.*

GEOL 497 - International Field Course
A supervised field course for several days at an international location to be determined. This course involves the observation, measurement, analysis and interpretation of geological sites, to expand geological knowledge and familiarise the student with the geology of other places outside of Canada. ***Prerequisites: 70% UGPA, min 24 credits in Geology/Environmental Geoscience, full-time student in the previous two terms and/or permission of the Department Head.*** *Note: An additional charge will be assessed to cover costs of the course.*