Darren Candow


Office: CK 173
E-mail: darren.candow@uregina.ca
Phone: 306-585-4906
Website: Twitter: @darrencandow Instagram: dr.darrencandow

Research interests
The overall objectives of my internationally renowned, externally funded research program (CIHR, SHRF, CFI; Nutricia European Research Foundation) are to develop evidence-based interventions involving nutrition (creatine monohydrate; CR) and physical activity (resistance exercise) which have practical and clinical relevance for improving musculoskeletal aging and reducing the risk of falls and fractures.

Collectively, I have produced 87 peer-refereed publications in high quality journals; have an h-index of 36, i10-index of 49 and my research has been cited > 4300 times (15 papers have been cited > 100 times).

Current Research Projects

Timing of creatine supplementation during resistance-exercise on muscle and bone biology.

Publications (Past 5 years)

Candow, D.G., P.D. Chilibeck, J. J. Gordon, and S. Kontulainen. (in press). Efficacy of creatine supplementation and supervised resistance training on area and density of bone and muscle in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.


Bagheri, R., B. H. Moghadam, D. G. Candow, B. T. Elliott, A. Wong, D. Ashtary-Larky, S. C. Forbes, and A. Rashidlamir. (in press). Post-exercise Icelandic yogurt consumption augments resistance training gains in lean mass, strength, and alters skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males. British Journal of Nutrition


Lane, G., C. Nisbet, S. Johnson, D.G. Candow, P.D. Chilibeck, and H. Vatanparast, (in press). Barriers and facilitators to meeting recommended physical activity levels among new immigrant and refugee children in Saskatchewan, Canada. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism.


Forbes, S.C., D.G. Candow, S.M. Ostojic, M.D. Roberts, and P.D. Chilibeck. (2021). Meta-analysis examining the importance of creatine ingestion strategies on lean tissue mass and strength in older adults. Nutrients.



Forbes, S.C., J. R. Krentz and D.G. Candow (in press). Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence the gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: A within-subject design. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.

Karayigit, R. S.C. Forbes, A. Naderi, D. G. Candow, U. C. Yildirim, F. Akca, D. Aras, B. C. Yasli, A. Sisman, A. Mor, and M. Kaviani. (2021). Different Doses of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Have No Effect on Exercise Performance in Resistance Trained Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7): 3463.


Pakulak, A., D.G. Candow. J. Totosy de Zepetnek, S.C. Forbes, and D. Basta. (2021). Effects of Creatine and Caffeine Supplementation During Resistance Training on Body Composition, Strength, Endurance, Rating of Perceived Exertion and Fatigue in Trained Young Adults. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 24: 1-16.


Candow, D.G., S.C. Forbes, B. Kirk and G. Duque. (2021). Current Evidence and Possible Future Applications of Creatine Supplementation for Older Adults. Nutrients, 13(3): 745.


Smith-Ryan, A.E., H.E. Cabre, J.M. Eckerson, and D.G. Candow. (2021). Creatine supplementation in women’s health: A lifespan perspective. Nutrients, 13(3): 877. 

Odgers, J.B., M.C. Zourdos, E.R. Helms, D.G. Candow, B. Dahlstrom, P. Bruno and C. A. Sousa. (2021). Rating of perceived exertion and velocity relationships among trained males and females in the front squat and hexagonal bar deadlift. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 1; 35(Suppl 1): S23-S30.  


Antonio, J. D. G. Candow, S. C. Forbes, B. Gualano, A. R. Jagim, R. B. Kreider, E. S. Rawson, A. E. Smith-Ryan, T. A. VanDusseldorp, D. S. Willoughby, and T. N. Ziegenfuss. (2021). Questions and Misconceptions About Creatine Supplementation: What Does the Scientific Evidence Really Show? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 18(1): 13.


Forbes, S.C., D.G. Candow, L. Ferreira, and T. Souza-Junior. (2021). Effects of creatine supplementation on properties of muscle, bone, and brain function in older adults: a narrative review. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 27: 1-18.  


Bagheri, R., S.C. Forbes, D.G. Candow, and A. Wong. (2021). Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation and resistance training in postmenopausal women. Experimental Gerontology, 144: 111185.


Pires, L.A.M., S.C. Forbes, D.G. Candow, and M. Machado. (2021). Creatine supplementation on cognitive performance following exercise in female Muay Thai athletes. NeuroSports. 1(6): 1-11

Bagheri, R., BHMoghadam, DAshtary-Larky, SCForbes, DGCandow,  A. J. Galpin, MEskandari, RBKreider, and AWong. (2021). Whole egg vs. egg white ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training in trained young males: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 1:35(2): 411-419.


Pourabbas, M., R. Bagheri, B. H. Moghadam, D. S. Willoughby, D. G. Candow, B. Elliott, S. C. Forbes, D. Ashtary-Larky, M. Eskandari, A. Wong, and F. Dutheil. (2021). Strategic ingestion of high-protein dairy milk during a resistance training program increases lean mass, strength, and power in trained young males. Nutrients, 13(3): 948. 


Candow, D.G., P. D. Chilibeck, J. J. Gordon, E. Vogt, T. Landeryou, M. Kaviani, and L. Paus-Jenssen. (2020).   Effect of 12 months of creatine supplementation and whole-body resistance training on measures of bone, muscle and strength in older males. Nutrition and Health.   doi: 10.1177/026010602097547.  


Sarshin, A., V. Fallahi, S. C. Forbes, A. Rahimi, M. S. Koozehchian, D. G. Candow, M. Kaviani, S. Khalifeh, V. Abdollahi, A. Naderi. (in press). Short-term co-ingestion of creatine and sodium bicarbonate improves anaerobic performance in trained taekwondo athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 20: 17(1): 44.


Mills, S., D.G. Candow, S.C. Forbes, J. Patrick Neary, M.J. Ormsbee, and J. Antonio. (2020). Effects of creatine supplementation during resistance training in physically active young adults. Nutrients, 12: 1880.

Antonio, J., D.G. Candow, S.C. Forbes, M.J. Ormsbee, P.G. Saracino, and J. Roberts. (2020). Effects of Dietary Protein on Body Composition in Exercising Individuals. Nutrients, 25;12(6). pii: E1890.

Sarshin, A., A. Naderi, C.J.G. da Cruz, F. Feizolahi, S.C. Forbes, D.G. Candow, E. Mohammadgholian, M. Amiri, N. Jafari, A. Rahimi, E. Alijani, and C.P. Earnest. (2020). The effects of varying doses of caffeine on cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following an acute bout of anaerobic exercise in recreational athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 20;17(1):44


Forbes, S.C., D.G. Candow, A. E. Smith-Ryan, K. Hirsch, M. D. Roberts, T. A VanDusseldorp, M. T. Stratton, M. Kaviani, and J. P. Little. (2020). Supplements and nutritional interventions to augment high intensity interval training physiological and performance adaptations – a narrative review. Nutrients, 12(2): pii: E390

Grzyb, K., D.G. Candow, B.J. Schoenfeld, P. Bernat, S. Butchart and J.P. Neary. (2020). Effect of equal volume, high-repetition resistance training to volitional fatigue, with different workout frequencies, on muscle mass and neuromuscular performance in postmenopausal women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Epub ahead of print).


Cornish, S.M., P.D. Chilibeck, and D.G. Candow. (2020). Potential importance of immune system response to exercise on aging muscle and bone. Current Osteoporosis Reports, 18(4): 350356.

Vieira, I.P., A.G. de Paula, P. Gentil, C. Pichard, D.G. Candow, and G.D. Pimentel. (2020). Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Lower-Limb Muscle Endurance Following an Acute Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Young Men. Sports (Basel), 21;8(2). pii: E12.


Candow, D.G., S.C. Forbes, P.D. Chilibeck. S.M. Cornish, J. Antonio, and R.B. Kreider (2019). Variables influencing the effectiveness of creatine supplementation as a therapeutic intervention for sarcopenia. Frontiers Nutrition, 9: 6; 124.


Forbes, S.C., D.G. Candow, J. Krentz, M. Roberts, and K. Young. (2019). Changes in fat mass following creatine supplementation in adults ≥ 50 years of age: A meta-analysis. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 4(3): 62.


Bernat, P., D. G. Candow, K. Gryzb, S. Butchart, B. J. Schoenfeld, and P. Bruno (2019).  Effects of creatine supplementation and high-velocity resistance training in untrained healthy aging males. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 44(11): 1246-1253.


Stecker, R.A., P.S. Harty, A.R. Jagim, D.G. Candow, and C.M. Kerksick. (2019). Timing of ergogenic aids and micronutrients on muscle and exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 16 (1): 37.


Candow, D.G., S.C. Forbes, P.D. Chilibeck. S.M. Cornish, J. Antonio, and R.B. Kreider (2019). Effectiveness of creatine supplementation on aging muscle and bone: Focus on falls prevention and inflammation. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8 (4): 488-502.


Candow, D.G., S.C. Forbes, E.Vogt (2019). Effect of pre and post-exercise creatine supplementation on bone mineral in healthy aging adults. Experimental Gerontology, 119: 89-92.


Chami, J., D.G. Candow. (2019). Effect of creatine supplementation dosing strategies on aging muscle performance and functionality. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, 23(3): 281-285.


Stopyn, RJN., and D.G. Candow. (2019). Review: Cancer and Aging. The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society, 9(3): 1-12.


Martin, AC., and D.G. Candow. (2019). Effects of online Yoga and Tai Chi on physical health outcome measures of adults informal caregivers. International Journal of Yoga, 12(1): 37-44.  


Forbes, SC., and D.G. Candow. (2018). Timing of creatine supplementation and resistance training: A brief review. Journal of Exercise and Nutrition, 1:5.

Forbes, S.C., P.D. Chilibeck, D.G. Candow. (2018). Creatine Supplementation During Resistance Training Does Not Lead to Greater Bone Mineral Density in Older Humans: A Brief Meta-Analysis. Frontiers Nutrition, 2018 Apr 24;5:27.


Chilibeck, P.D., M. Kaviani, D. G. Candow, Gordon A. Zello. (2017). Effect of Creatine Supplementation during Resistance Training on Lean Tissue Mass and Muscular Strength in Older Adults: A meta-analysis. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 8: 213-226.

Kreider, R.B., D.S. Kalman, J. Antonio, T.N. Ziegenfuss, R. Wildman, R. Collins, D.G. Candow, S.M. Kleiner, A.L. Almada, H.L. Lopez. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13; 14:18.

Duff, W.R., P.D. Chilibeck, D.G. Candow, J.J. Gordon, R.S. Mason, R. Taylor-Gjevre, B. Nair, M. Szafron, A. Baxter-Jones, G.A. Zello, S. Kontulainen.(2017). Effects of Ibuprofen and Resistance Training on Bone and Muscle: An RCT in Older Women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49(4): 633-640.

Duff, W.R.D., P.D. Chilibeck,  D.G. Candow, J.J. Rooke, R. Mason, R. Taylor-Gjevre, B. Nair, M. Szafron, A. Baxter-Jones, S.A. Kontulainen. (2016). Effects of low-dose ibuprofen supplementation and resistance training on body composition and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Bone Reports, 5: 96-103.

Johannsmeyer, S., D.G. Candow, C.M. Brahms, D. Michel, G.A. Zello. (2016). Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. Experimental Gerontology, 83:112-9.

Forbes, S.C., N. Sletten, C. Durrer, É.  Myette-Cote, D.G. Candow, J.P. Little (2016). Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation Does Not Augment Fitness, Performance, or Body Composition Adaptations in Response to Four Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Young Females. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 21:1-23.

Gualano, B., E. S. Rawson, D. G. Candow, P. D. Chilibeck. (2016). Review: Creatine supplementation in the aging population: Effects on skeletal muscle, bone and brain. Amino Acids, 48(8): 1793-1805.

Boychuk, K.E., J. L. Lanovaz, J. R. Krentz, J. U. Lishchynsky, D.G. Candow, J. P. Farthing (2016). Creatine supplementation does not alter recovery from damaging eccentric exercise. Muscle & Nerve, 54(3): 487-495.


Baker, T., D.G. Candow, J.P. Farthing. (2016). Effect of pre-exercise creatine ingestion on muscle performance in healthy aging males. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(6): 1763-1766.


Martin, A.C., D.G. Candow. (2016). Tai Chi’s Potential for Improving

Health Outcome Measures in Informal Caregivers. The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society, 6(4): 35-50.


Martin, A.C., D.G. Candow. (2016). Potential of Yoga for Improving Health Outcome Measures in Informal Caregivers. The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society, 7(10: 15-32.

External Funding (Past 5 years)

Canadian Institutes for Health Research- Randomized Controlled Trial (2013-2018)
Title: Long-term effects of creatine supplementation and exercise training on bone mineral density and bone strength in postmenopausal women
Role: Co-Principal Applicant
Award: $ 578,455/5 years

Canadian Institutes for Health Research- Drug Catalyst Grant (2012-2013)
Title: Ibuprofen supplementation after resistance training and its effects on bone in postmenopausal women
Role: Co-Principal Applicant
Request: $99,212/1 year

Nutricia Research Foundation-Operating Grant (2010-2012)
Title: Potential of creatine application strategies and resistance-exercise for improving musculoskeletal health in older adults
Role: Principal Applicant
Award: $72,000/2 years

Links of Interest