Key to the Exercises in

Thomas O. Lambdin,


Prepared by

Prof. William E. Arnal

University of Regina

© 2006


Thomas O. Lambdin's Introduction to Sahidic Coptic, published by Mercer University Press, remains the only English-language grammar of Sahidic that is oriented to teaching, and that is both accessible and comprehensive. The following list of answers to the exercises is intended to supplement this textbook and to help make it more user-friendly. It was felt that a key against which to measure one's success at the exercises would not only serve the interests of those using the text to teach themselves Coptic, but would also reduce the work-load for teachers of the language using this text for the first time. The copyright for the exercises in Lambdin's grammar is held by Mercer University Press, and includes rights over translations of these exercises. The following key is therefore "published" to the web only with the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

Nearly all of the exercises in Lambdin's grammar involve translating Coptic sentences into English. Translation, of course, is not an exact science. So the translations offered below should not be understood as the only possible answers to each question, but as giving the general sense of the Coptic, for which various English synonyms, sentence structures, word order, or possessive expressions ("the king's son" versus "the son of the king") and the like could perhaps be substituted. Generally, the translation provided is the one that seemed most natural - in many of these cases, various alternatives employing different words but essentially the same basic meaning are also correct. In such cases, students should prefer the translation that makes most sense, and should definitely avoid translations that make little sense, even if they are technically possible. The answers substitute some more familiar English words for those Lambdin provides, e.g., "to where" for "whither"; "from where" for "whence"; "relatives" for "kinsmen"; etc.

Where there is real ambiguity, e.g., in deciding whether to translate the 3rd person pl. of transitive verbs in the active or passive voice (from lesson 13 on), a note explains the ambiguity where it first occurs. In three-part pe sentences with two definite nouns (from lesson 5 on), either element can usually be the subject or the predicate: these have been translated fairly arbitrarily. If the answer is given as "This man is my father," often "My father is this man" will also be possible. However, if one element is indefinite, that element must be the predicate, so a translation along the lines of "a carpenter is my father" is incorrect. Following Lambdin, affirmative second tense verbs have usually been rendered with English cleft sentences: "it was because of you that I came here." Any translation, however, that conveys the appropriate emphasis should be understood as correct, e.g., "I came here because of you." The particle de, appearing from lesson 9 forward, has been left completely untranslated, unless it has significant meaning for the individual sentence.

I wish to offer particular thanks to James Leonard, Rev. Dr. Judy Redman (Chaplain, University of New England), Rich Weaver, Chris Marriott, and Manuel Reyes for drawing my attention to several errors. If any other users find errors, typos, or the like in any of the answers, please contact the author (william[dot]arnal[at-sign]uregina[dot]ca), with the subject-line "Key to Lambdin," so they can be corrected.

For the few places where Coptic is required in this key, I have used the CS Copto Manuscript font. It is available for download at





Lesson 1

Lesson 2

Lesson 3

Lesson 4

Lesson 5

Lesson 6

Lesson 7

Lesson 8

Lesson 9

Lesson 10

Lesson 11

Lesson 12

Lesson 13

Lesson 14

Lesson 15

Lesson 16

Lesson 17

Lesson 18

Lesson 19

Lesson 20

Lesson 21

Lesson 22

Lesson 23

Lesson 24

Lesson 25

Lesson 26

Lesson 27

Lesson 28

Lesson 29

Lesson 30




Lesson 1: Exercises (p.4)


A. 1. on the road

2. on the mountain

3. in the road

4. in the house

5. under the house

6. under the stone

7. in / on the book

8. with the man

9. with the woman

10. upon the roads

11. under the houses

12. on the mountains

13. in the houses

14. with the women

15. on the gold

16. the gold and the books[1]

17. the old man and the old woman

18. the man and the woman

19. the men and the women

20. the old men and the old women


B. 1. The stone is on the road.

2. The old men are on the road.

3. The old women are in the house.

4. The gold is under the stone.

5. The book is on the stone.

6. The house is on the mountain.

7. The men are on the mountain.

8. The woman is with the man.[2]

9. The books are in the house.


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Lesson 2: Exercises (p.7)


A. 1. on the boat

2. under the sky

3. in the heavens

4. about the king

5. with the (female) slave

6. in the harbor

7. on the river

8. about the gold

9. in the harbors

10. under the boat

11. about some kings

12. some men and some women

13. some mountains and some roads

14. under a stone

15. on a mountain

16. in a fish

17. on some houses

18. with an old woman

19. about a book

20. about the light


B. 1. the fish (pl.) of the river

2. the men's boats

3. the king's houses

4. the old man's name

5. the light of the sky

6. the water of the harbor

7. the queen's name

8. the monk's books

9. the water of the river

10. some stones of the mountain

11. a slave of the king

12. the wife of the slave


C. 1. There is (a) light in the heavens. / Light is in the heavens.

2. There are no fish in the harbor. / No fish are in the harbor.[3]

3. There is no water in the river. / No water is in the river.

4. An old man is on the road. / There is an old man on the road.

5. There are some stones in the harbor. / Some stones are in the harbor.

6. There is no house on the mountain. / No house is on the mountain.

7. The boats are not on the river.

8. No boat is on the river. / There is not a boat on the river.

9. The books are not on the boat.

10. There is no gold in the slave's house. / No gold is in the slave's house.


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Lesson 3: Exercises (pp.10-11)


A. 1. at the entrance of the church

2. in the presence of the king

3. in the tomb

4. with the disciples

5. the door of the house

6. the boat's owner

7. the owners of the boats

8. the (male) slave's daughter

9. at the entranceway / doorway of the house[4]

10. a church of the village

11. a letter of Paul

12. the disciples of Jesus

13. in the name of the Lord

14. in the presence of God

15. the bank of the river

16. upon the shore of the sea

17. in darkness

18. at the entrance / door of the tomb

19. the disciple's books

20. the men of the villages


B. 1. the stone which is in the harbor

2. the disciples who are with Jesus

3. the darkness which is upon the city

4. the churches which are in the city

5. the light which is in the heavens

6. the fish which are in the sea

7. the slave who is in the presence of the master

8. the water which is in the river

9. the angels who are in the heavens

10. the monks who are in the monastery

11. the men of that city

12. those villages

13. that man's disciples

14. the children / sons of that (male) slave

15. the ships which are on the bank of the river[5]


C. 1. God is in heaven.

2. No church is in that village. / There is no church in that village.

3. There is an angel at the door of the tomb. / An angel is at the door of the tomb.

4. The letters are with the books.

5. There is no book there. / No book is there.

6. There is a disciple of Paul in the doorway. / A disciple of Paul is in the doorway.

7. There is no light in the darkness.

8. The owner of the house is not in the house.

9. The boat is not on the river.

10. The children of the village are on the road.

11. There are some tombs in those banks.

12. There is (a) darkness upon the city.


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Lesson 4: Exercises (pp.13-14)


A. 1. behind his disciples

2. in the presence of their lord

3. at the entrance of his tomb

4. with his daughter

5. behind her son

6. in the presence of our lord

7. on their church

8. about your (pl.) village

9. in your (fm. sg.) city

10. in this world

11. with this wine[6]

12. with his brothers

13. about / concerning our sister

14. in the other house

15. in another place


B. 1. the commandments of our ancestors

2. my father's name

3. the door of your (ms. sg.) house

4. the door of the other house

5. concerning our sins

6. beside our house

7. in peace

8. in the presence of our bishop

9. Jesus' mother

10. the wine of these monks

11. the gold of their master

12. the name of your (pl.) mother

13. near your (ms. sg.) church

14. near these villages

15. under your (fm. sg.) sins / because of your sins

16. with the ones (i.e., people) of the village

17. this letter of Paul

18. this boat of our Lord

19. in the marketplace of the city


C. 1. Our Lord is not on the boat.

2. There is no wine here.

3. A monk is at the entrance of the church.

4. There is no peace in this world.

5. My father and my mother are in the house.

6. There is (some) bread there.

7. Our brother is on the shore of the sea.

8. A boat is near the bank.

9. An old woman is in the doorway of his house.

10. Our brothers are on the mountain.

11. Your (fm. sg.) brother is not in the tomb.

12. Your (pl.) father is on my boat.

13. Our boat is in the harbor.

14. His book is on that stone.

15. There is no road in that place.


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Lesson 5: Exercises (p.17)[7]


A. 1. She is a slave of my mother.

2. It is a fish.

3. It is a book of your brother.

4. She is a virgin.

5. They are priests.

6. He is the son of my sister.

7. She is the daughter of the carpenter.

8. She is the mother of our savior.

9. It is his father's camel.

10. It is not a boat.

11. It is a sin.

12. He is not a god.

13. It is not our house.

14. They are teachers.

15. They are the commandments of our Lord.


B. 1. This is the power of God.

2. This (man) is not her husband.

3. This is a (female) camel.

4. These are the words of the gospel.

5. Their village is in the hill country.

6. His house is in the middle of the city.

7. My father is a carpenter.

8. His son is a priest.

9. His brothers are priests.

10. Perhaps he is her husband.

11. Your (fm. sg.) husband is at the doorway.

12. Her name is Elizabeth.

13. Elizabeth is the mother of John.

14. John is the son of Zacharias.

15. My name is not Joseph.

16. Your (pl.) house is beside the temple.

17. Perhaps this man is the Christ.

18. This is Mary's greeting.

19. Mary is a virgin.

20. There is a crowd in the middle of the marketplace.

21. There is no peace here.

22. There are some villages in the hill-country.

23. Perhaps there is a teacher in the village.

24. These are our sins.

25. These are loaves. / This is bread.


C. 1. the villages which are behind the mountain

2. the man who is a bishop

3. these words which are her greeting

4. the crowd on the shore

5. the old woman who is a virgin

6. the roads in the hill country

7. the ships in the midst of the sea

8. the Christ, i.e., our Savior

9. the temple, namely, the house of the Lord

10. this book, that is to say, the gospel


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Lesson 6: Exercises (pp.20-21)


A. 1. I am a slave of the governor.

2. There is a shepherd there in the field.

3. You (ms. sg.) are our teacher.

4. We are his sheep.

5. It is not us.

6. He is the glory of his people.

7. Who are you (fm. sg.)?

8. I am an angel of God.

9. There is a sword there.

10. What is this marvel?

11. He is your (fm. sg.) husband.

12. This is God's law.

13. What is the gospel?

14. His people is Israel.

15. It's them.

16. Who are they? They are her relatives.

17. You (fm. sg.) are my wife.

18. It is not a stone.

19. I am Joseph.

20. The glory of the Lord is upon this man.

21. What is this? It is a sign.

22. Perhaps he is the Christ.

23. It is a village of Galilee.

24. Whose temple is this?

25. This book is a gospel.

26. It's you (pl.).

27. What is the way?

28. There is a governor in Syria.

29. What is this power?

30. You (pl.) are priests.

31. The old woman is in the presence of the governor.

32. There is no village in that hill-country.

33. This is the king's law.

34. There are some shepherds on the mountain.

35. This light is a sign.

36. She is a virgin.

37. Whose camels are they?

38. John is not the Christ.

39. The other man is my relative.

40. He is the son of the carpenter.

41. What is the darkness which is upon the city?

42. They are my brothers.

43. These are the words of your (pl.) law.

44. The other sheep are in the field.

45. What is the governor's name?

46. This is my sword.

47. It is a sign of his power.

48. Who is John's mother?


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Lesson 7: Exercises (pp.24-25)


1. The brothers went to the city.

2. The boy came to our house.

3. His sister went to the doorway of the church.

4. They came after their children.

5. His mother walked to the tomb.

6. His disciples climbed onto the boat.

7. He went to another brother.

8. We came to the entrance of his house.

9. Jesus walked on the shore of the sea.

10. The monks went up to the monastery.

11. His disciples ran to another place.

12. He prayed for his children.

13. Why did you (pl.) run onto the road?

14. We walked with our wives to the village.

15. A monk went to the bishop.

16. He prayed for our sins.

17. The (female) slave came into the presence of her master.

18. Our Lord ascended to heaven.

19. Why did you (ms. sg.) pursue my father?

20. Why did you weep over those men?

21. He sat down on the river's bank.

22. The old woman wept for her son.

23. They sat down with their brothers.

24. I walked on the road with my daughter.

25. They went on that road to the city.

26. His (male) horse ran up to the mare.

27. The bishop mounted his horse.

28. His mother came to the king in / of the city.

29. We prayed for our brothers who were / are in the monastery.

30. I wept over my sins.

31. The king sat down on his throne.

32. The disciple sat down in the doorway of the house.

33. The children ran on the road to the harbor.

34. The donkey walked behind its owner.

35. We mounted our donkeys.

36. His wife and his daughters sat down at the table.

37. Some men came near the church.

38. Why did you walk behind the donkey on the road?

39. Jesus sat down with his disciples.

40. The shepherds walked behind their sheep.

41. The camel ran to the field.

42. We prayed for a sign.

43. The people of the city came to the governor of Judea.

44. The girl sat down with her relatives.

45. The governor went to Syria.

46. This is the God of Israel.


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Lesson 8: Exercises (pp.28-29)


A. 1. through your (ms. sg.) prayers

2. against our brothers

3. out through this road

4. away to the river

5. out of the city

6. away from the table

7. about his task

8. against your (pl.) words

9. through his words

10. into Alexandria

11. up to the platform

12. up onto the mountain

13. into my cell

14. under these tasks / because of these things

15. to his disciples

16. at the entrance of his cell

17. about your (fm. sg.) weeping

18. in his flight

19. down to the sea

20. down to the water

21. back to their village

22. ahead to the mountains

23. away from the platform

24. up onto the horse

25. out through the door of the house

26. away from here

27. against the name of the king

28. through the agency of the Lord

29. about your (pl.) flight


B. 1. They got up and ran away.

2. We came in and sat down.

3. He went back to his village.

4. He sat down and spoke with the men.

5. I got up from the table.

6. We walked in to Alexandria.

7. The other man got up onto the donkey.

8. Why have you (feminine sing.) run out of your house?

9. The monk went into his cell.

10. Why have you (pl.) spoken against our Lord?

11. I sat down beside my father.

12. They spoke about their wine.

13. There are some donkeys and some horses there.

14. He came down from the platform.

15. The men rose up against the king.

16. I talked about my sins.

17. The women walked down to the shore.

18. We went up / down to our villages.

19. She fled from those men.

20. We went into the presence of the bishop.

21. Why did you (ms. sg.) go back to the marketplace?

22. He went out of this world.

23. She spoke with her mother about her children.

24. The men mounted their horses.

25. They spoke about the bread and the (pl.) fish.

26. They spoke against his commandments.

27. He arose from the throne.

28. We walked ahead in the darkness.

29. He went up to the platform.

30. He spoke about the monk's affairs.


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Lesson 9: Exercises (pp.33-34)


A. 1. onto the ground → ejwf, onto it

2. against their master→ oubyf, against him

3. on his bed → hiwf / hiwwf, on it

4. at the entrance of the tomb → hirwf, at its entrance

5. after his death → m=n=ncwf, after it

6. in the presence of God → nahraf, in his presence

7. in the rivers → =nhytou, in them

8. through these afflictions → hitootou, through them

9. to the fish → eroou, to them

10. about their hunger → etbyyt=f, about it

11. to her name → erof, to it

12. to his slaves → saroou, to them

13. upon the ground → hijwf, upon it

14. behind his son → =ncwf, behind him

15. through the famine → hitoot=f, through it

16. under my bed → harof, under it

17. after our flight → m=n=ncwf, after it

18. in his cell → =nhyt=c, in it

19. upon your (ms. sg.) boat → hijwf, upon it

20. under your (pl.) afflictions → haroou, under them

21. about the festivals → etbyytou, about them

22. at the entrance of the church → hirwc, at its entrance

23. to the old woman → saroc, to her

24. against my words → oubyu, against them

25. in the presence of his mother → nahrac, in her presence

26. through the light → hitoot=f, through it

27. near the harbor → hahtyc, near it

28. onto the platform → ejwf, onto it

29. in the water → =mmof, in it

30. after that festival → m=n=ncwf, after it


B. 1. away from us

2. with me

3. from among you (pl.)

4. against me

5. because of us

6. near us

7. down upon us

8. against you (pl.)

9. with you (pl.)

10. down onto me

11. in my presence

12. because of you (ms. sg.)

13. in your (fm. sg.) presence

14. on you (ms. sg.)

15. with us


C. 1. Death came into the world through our sins.

2. After these things, that king died.

3. The boy fell down onto the ground.

4. Why have these afflictions befallen me?

5. He lay down on the bed and wept.

6. The men approached the village which was / is on that mountain.

7. Afterwards, they found their son in the synagogue.

8. The men of this city died of a famine.

9. A festival happened here on that day.

10. We grew weary through the famine, and arose and went to another village.

11. He spoke with us about the books which were / are in the city.

12. I became weary, I lay down, and I prayed to God about these things.

13. The day of the festival drew near.

14. The monk died at the doorway of his cell.

15. They became hungry and they came back to the village.

16. Afterwards, our city perished by means of it / him.

17. The boy arose from the ground and ran to his father.

18. After these things, our Lord died.

19. It happened that she found the gold under the bed.

20. The boats approached the harbor.


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Lesson 10: Exercises (pp.37-38)

A. 1. He gave me a tunic.

2. I sold him my boat.

3. I gave the gold to him.

4. We fought with those men.

5. They fought against us.

6. He gave the gold to his son.

7. They lifted the stone off of him.

8. He lifted up his son.

9. We did not agree with them.

10. He lifted up his bed and went away.

11. They built a temple there.

12. They did not obey their master.

13. I heard the voice of the priest.

14. I did not hear about her death.

15. We saw a boat there.

16. They sought me in the marketplace.

17. We found him on the shore with our teacher.

18. I visited him in his cell.

19. He saw an angel.

20. I received them from my father.

21. They took it from me.

22. We entrusted her to you (fm. sg.).

23. He found it under his bed.

24. His father did not enter.

25. Why didn't you (pl.) fall asleep?

26. We tolerated those afflictions.

27. She did not approach the tomb.

28. I did not sell the cloak.

29. I did not give you (fm. sg.) this tunic.

30. Why didn't you (fm. sg.) come to me?

31. We did not speak with them.

32. Why did they fight with you (pl.)?

33. He did not find us there.

34. They did not climb onto their boat.

35. You (pl.) did not receive these commandments from your fathers / ancestors.

36. He did not arise from the ground.

37. He heard their voices and fled.

38. The crowd agreed with the bishop.[8]

39. We did not hear his words.

40. He took my cloak.

41. His disciple did not obey him.

42. My son did not come back.

43. I heard about these things from my brother.

44. He entrusted his mother to his disciples.

45. They found him in the midst of the crowd.

46. The carpenter built us a house there.

47. Perhaps your (fm. sg.) husband has died.

48. I saw the glory of the Lord and his power.

49. They fled with us to the hill-country.

50. He spoke with me about the gospel.


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Lesson 11: Exercises (pp.41-42)


A. 1. They entrusted me to you (fm. sg.).

2. We measured it out to them.

3. I received it from them.

4. You (pl.) gave it to us.

5. They took them out of it. / They received some of it.

6. You (ms. sg.) lifted me up.

7. I measured them out to you (pl.).

8. I gave them to her.

9. He carried you (pl.) away / out.

10. They entrusted you (fm. sg.) to me.


B. 1. I gave the bread to her. → aitaaf nac, I gave it to her.

2. He did not give the money to me. → =mpeftaaf nai, He did not give it to me.

3. We entrusted the books to him. → antaau etoot=f, We entrusted them to him.

4. He sold them his house. → aftaaf nau ebol, He sold it to them.

5. She gave us the tunic. → actaac nan, She gave it to us.

6. We received the gold from them. → anjit=f =ntootou, We received it from them.

7. You (pl.) received this peace through him (i.e., through his agency). → atet=njit=c ebol hitoot=f, You received it through him.

8. They measured the road. → ausit=c, They measured it.

9. I measured out the bread to them. → aisit=f nau, I measured it out to them.

10. You (ms. sg.) measured out the money to me. / You weighed the silver for me. → aksit=f nai, You measured it out to me.

11. He lifted away the stone. → affit=f ebol, He lifted it away.

12. He picked up the gold and ran away. → affit=f, afpwt ebol, He picked it up and ran away.

13. She measured out the wine to me. → acsit=f nai, She measured it out to me.

14. You (fm. sg.) took the cloak from my house. → arjit=f ebol h=m payi, You took it from my house.


C. 1. the boy who is behind him

2. the water which is in it

3. the friend who is with him

4. the ones (i.e., people) who are in the synagogue

5. my sister and her (female) friend

6. the gold and the silver

7. the day and the night

8. under this illness

9. to this measure

10. the weight of this stone

11. the shepherd and his companions

12. after her labor / giving birth

13. the tunic which is on the bed

14. the illness which is among the sheep

15. from his father

16. the weight of the silver

17. my friend's cloak

18. an offspring of his house

19. to my companions

20. the voice of my mother

21. in the darkness of the night

22. against their words

23. through the Lord

24. after that festival

25. the name of this illness

26. the men who are with him

27. in signs / with miracles[9]

28. with a sword


D. 1. His wife became very ill.

2. I set the gold and the silver on the table.

3. We abandoned our companions in the village and went ahead to the monastery.

4. Afterwards, the old man became ill and died.

5. He rejoiced exceedingly with me over the death of the king.

6. He loved that woman very much.

7. God sent his law to them.

8. The bishop sent for the monk.

9. I measured out the bread and the wine to them.

10. The men measured the field.

11. There is no moderation in his words.

12. They became filled, they got up from the table, and they left.

13. He sent the women and their children out of the village.

14. Why didn't God forgive you (pl.) your sins?

15. We became sated with his words and we sent him away.

16. We rejoiced over the words of our Lord.

17. He brought his son to the entrance of the monk's cell.

18. He brought the silver to us in the night.

19. She bore her son in that village.

20. She did not bear him here.

21. The (male) slave loved his master's daughter.

22. Why didn't you (fm. sg.) bring me the book?

23. They published his commandments.

24. They brought me into his presence.

25. Why have you sent for me?


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Lesson 12: Exercises (pp.45-46)


A. 1. the rising / festival which happened there

2. the throne which he sat upon

3. the donkey which I mounted

4. the money which I gave you (fm. sg.)

5. the horses which we received from you (ms. sg.)

6. the children who walked behind him

7. the girl who fell ill

8. the wine which the monk drank

9. the tunic which she washed

10. the words he said

11. the men we pitied

12. the woman who conceived and gave birth

13. the place in which the monks stopped

14. the companion they waited for

15. the monk who you (pl.) waited for

16. the horse you (ms. sg.) sold me

17. the book which you (fm. sg.) set on the table

18. the cup from which I drank

19. the milk he drank some of / the milk from which he drank

20. the friends who we abandoned

21. the speech / saying over which he rejoiced

22. the woman who washed his feet

23. the drink which I became filled with

24. the money which our master measured out to you (pl.)

25. the man whose sins you (ms. sg.) forgave

26. the men who came to you (ms. sg.) in the night

27. the brothers who he loved

28. the man whose face you (ms. sg.) saw

29. the men for whom the bishop prayed

30. the disciple who they pursued


B. 1. the ones (i.e., the people) who stopped in that village

2. the one (i.e., the man) who drank from this cup

3. the one (i.e., the man) who pitied me and gave me a piece of bread

4. the one (i.e., the man) who spoke these words

5. the one (i.e., the woman) who conceived me

6. the ones (i.e., the people) who we waited for

7. the one (i.e., the man) who drank the milk

8. the ones (i.e., the people) who went away to the city

9. the ones (i.e., the people) who approached the entrance of his house

10. the one (i.e., the man) who sent me to you (pl.)

11. the one (i.e., woman) who he loved

12. the ones (i.e., the people) whose cloaks they washed / the ones (i.e., the people) who washed their cloaks

13. the ones (i.e., the people) who did not hear the speech

14. the thing which I said to you (pl.)

15. the ones (i.e., the people) who he did not send

16. the ones (i.e., the people) who did not publish them / the things which they did not publish


C. 1. She washed his face and his ears.

2. He said, "I have not seen him / it."

3. After these things, the woman conceived.

4. He wept over his companions who died on the road.

5. The monk did not drink any of the wine.

6. After the rising of the sun, we left.

7. The girl washed her hair in the water of the river.

8. The sun came up over the mountain.

9. Why didn't you (pl.) wash your faces?

10. They said to us, "We did not take it."

11. We stayed with them in that night.

12. He spoke with us about his brothers who had not come with him.

13. The sun rose, and we got up and went out.

14. I heard these words in / with my ears.


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Lesson 13: Exercises (pp.50-52)[10]


A. 1. the cup which I accepted from him / the cup from which I received it

2. the platform from which he arose

3. the work which he completed

4. the house which was built there / the house which they built there

5. the gold which we hid under the stone

6. the stone which fell down onto my feet

7. the gate through which they went

8. the task which you (ms. sg.) spoke about

9. the widow to whom I gave the money

10. The monk whose cell they approached


B. 1. I went to Alexandria to see my father.

2. They came to speak with me.

3. He went to the river to wash his clothes.

4. I sat down to drink the milk and to eat the meat.

5. I was sent to bring you (ms. sg.) this book. / They sent me to bring you this book.

6. He brought water in which to wash his feet.

7. He got up to go back to Jerusalem.

8. Who finished this task?

9. Who hid him in the house? / Who did they hide in the house? / Who was hidden in the house?

10. It was these commandments which were annulled. / It was these commandments which they annulled.

11. It was the widow who was given the bread. / It was the widow who they gave the bread to.

12. Who interpreted the book for you (pl.)?

13. It was he who closed the gate.

14. It was these (persons) from whom I received it.

15. It was the dogs who ate him / it.

16. It was the Christ who opened my eyes.

17. Who ascribed them to that village? / Who was ascribed to that village?

18. It was the teacher who gave them to me.

19. It was this greeting which the angel spoke to her.

20. What did you (ms. sg.) buy in the market?

21. It was this temple which our ancestors built.

22. It was this man who she spoke with.


C. 1. When the monk finished his task, he got up and went away.

2. We stayed with him until sunrise.

3. When the sun rose, we mounted our horses and pursued him.

4. He was ascribed to the house of David. / They ascribed him to the house of David.

5. When she heard these things, she took her son and hid him.

6. The men closed the gates of the city.

7. When I counted the silver, I gave it to them.

8. They did not esteem the words of our Lord.

9. It happened that when the gate of the city was opened, the people ran out through it. / It happened that when they opened the gate of the city, the people ran out through it.

10. When I went, I took the rope with me.

11. When we heard the words which he spoke, we rejoiced very much.

12. He ascribed us to the people of Jerusalem.

13. When they did not find the books which we hid in the house, they went away.

14. The dogs ate the meat.

15. When he found them, he untied their ropes.

16. When I saw him, I pitied him.

17. When he finished these words, he closed his eyes and died.

18. When he saw them, he said to them, "Why have you (pl.) come here?"

19. The dog gnawed at the flesh of the donkey.

20. It happened that, when the time of her labor drew near, she went to her mother's house.

21. When they saw the light of / in his face and heard his words, they fell to the ground and hid their faces.

22. Why have you (pl.) annulled the commandments of your ancestors?

23. When she did not find her daughter there, she wept.

24. When he did not open the door of his cell, I went away.


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Lesson 14: Exercises (pp.55-56)


1. They did not wish to approach us.

2. When did your (ms. sg.) father die?

3. It happened that when I finished my task, I got up and left.

4. Who did they cast into prison? It was our teacher.

5. The skies filled with light.

6. It was of his own volition that he came into this world.

7. I unfastened the fetters in which the man was bound.

8. When did you (ms. sg.) put on the (monastic) habit?

9. These are the things which happened on that day.

10. When did you (ms. sg.) settle in this city?

11. It happened that when she found it, she picked it up, and she went away with it.

12. Where did you (fm. sg.) hide them?

13. They bound my feet and hands and left me there on the shore.[11]

14. From whom did you (pl.) receive these (things)?

15. This is the death which he wanted.

16. He did not add to the money which he gave them.

17. After these things, he was filled with joy.

18. The church filled with the voices of the crowd.

19. Who put him in prison?

20. Why did you (pl.) throw away these garments?

21. The men tied the monk to the horse.

22. His eyes filled with tears.

23. Who did he want to see?

24. It was because of their sins that your (pl.) ancestors perished.

25. Afterwards, we came in to the synagogue.

26. Their boat filled with water.

27. What did you (ms. sg.) eat today?

28. When I closed the door, I sat down and counted the money which was given to me.

29. The dogs gnawed at his feet.

30. This is the stone which was discarded.

31. When did the festival happen?

32. Who undid these fetters?

33. The bishop accepted us into monkhood.

34. It was because of the famine that we abandoned our village.

35. Who put you (ms. sg.) here?

36. She put her daughter on the bed.

37. His words filled them with joy.

38. Why have these afflictions befallen us?

39. When was the gate of the city opened?

40. What happened to you (ms. sg.) in the gateway?

41. I threw the rope down to the ground.

42. They did not want to hear my words.

43. I did not see the widow until now.

44. I wanted to go to sleep.


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Lesson 15: Exercises (pp.60-61)


A. 1. a poor widow

2. this great gate

3. a faithful slave

4. a righteous king

5. this faithless people

6. the wicked (female) slave

7. a great governor

8. our beloved father

9. the little fish (sg.)

10. a miserable cripple / a crippled poor person

11. a little meat

12. a wise old woman

13. his faithful disciples

14. the lame horse

15. some poor women

16. the righteous man

17. my beloved mother

18. a small prison

19. the wicked works

20. the words of the wise (people)[12]

21. this great law

22. the wise righteous man / the righteous wise man

23. the wise virgins

24. our beloved children

25. the unbelieving crowd

26. his crippled son

27. the tears of the poor (people)

28. the wicked and the good (people)

29. a poor orphan

30. the faithful woman


B. 1. three boats

2. three tunics

3. these three days

4. four cloaks

5. the four mountains

6. four widows

7. these four commandments

8. one monk

9. one gate

10. two fetters

11. his two eyes

12. two years

13. two months

14. these five months

15. five little boats

16. five good men

17. two good women

18. the two kings


C. 1. When did you (ms. sg.) reach this city?

2. A small city was built there.

3. We dwelt there for four years.

4. Why did you (fm. sg.) fight with him?

5. What is the name of the village which you (pl.) reached that night?

6. Who was looking for me?

7. This is the voice of our beloved son.

8. I gave the money to the poor.

9. I did not want to speak with that crippled man.

10. What is the measure to which this righteous monk has attained?

11. Where did you (ms. sg.) discard them? / From where did you throw them?

12. I remained in their village for a year.


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Lesson 16: Exercises (pp.65-66)[13]


A. 1. some of this sort

2. six sheep

3. all the money

4. one of the lame

5. what sort of glory?

6. for seven days

7. all night / the whole night

8. everything that I received

9. a sword of this sort

10. all the villages of Syria

11. in the presence of the high priest

12. like a great wise man

13. all my money

14. every man who he saw

15. three kinds

16. everyone who is in the synagogue

17. the whole law of Moses

18. six fields

19. these ten commandments

20. all the regions of this world

21. for seven years

22. like a faithful servant

23. all of us

24. all the poor of the city

25. in any place

26. eight big ships

27. one of them

28. every word he spoke

29. what kind of sickness?

30. two shepherds

31. upon any road

32. in his presence

33. any fruit

34. four signs

35. to what measure?

36. in his region and in his village

37. for eight months

38. with great rejoicing

39. a wicked high priest

40. all our companions


B. 1. I put nothing on the table.

2. There are some of this sort in every city.

3. How did you (ms. sg.) find your money?

4. What kind is this book?

5. At what time did she bear her son?

6. Who am I? I am nothing.

7. He gave me nothing.

8. We abandoned everyone.

9. Their wicked words are nothing.

10. Someone came to him in the night.

11. She stayed with one of her relatives.

12. Why did you (fm. sg.) act like this?

13. Once, the archbishop came to our monastery.

14. The nine men were brought in to him.

15. I was sent to this whole people.

16. I loved no one in that place.

17. Some (people) fell very ill on that occasion.

18. He gave no bread to us.

19. When did you (pl.) reach here?

20. There is no one there with him.


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Lesson 17: Exercises (pp.69-70)


A. 1. the cup which I found there

2. the law which the Lord gave to Moses

3. everything that the disciples did

4. the son she bore

5. the unclean spirit which he cast out

6. the fruit which she brought her husband

7. the enemy who the soldiers sought

8. the money which the soldiers didn't find

9. the one who bore him for her husband

10. the ones who brought them to us / the thing which they brought to us

11. the thing which you (pl.) did

12. the things which we found there


B. 1. Listen to my teaching.

2. Drink the milk, my son.

3. Pity me, my lord.

4. Don't say it to any man.

5. Keep all these commandments.

6. Worship the Lord your (ms. sg.) God.

7. Don't wait for me.

8. Wash your (ms. sg.) face.

9. Don't go to the desert.

10. Preserve my soul, my lord.

11. Give everything to the poor.

12. Stay with me in the night.

13. Bring six soldiers with you (ms. sg.).

14. Do not serve that wicked king.

15. Bind his feet with these fetters.

16. Take him to the high priest.

17. Seize him.

18. Look at the sun in the sky.

19. Summon your (ms. sg.) brother, child.

20. Guard us from the soldiers.

21. Do not remain in my presence.

22. Give him a little water.

23. Do this like me.

24. Bring ten men here.

25. Always behave like him.

26. Come (pl.) in to his temple.

27. Come (fm. sg.) to me, my daughter.

28. Open the door.

29. Don't close the door.

30. Stay with me for eight months.


C. 1. They did not understand the parables which he spoke to them.

2. The soldiers seized him, bound him, and threw him into the prison.

3. The crowd did not understand that he was the Christ.

4. These are the words of the devil. Do not listen to them.

5. He understood at that time that his father had died.

6. Who preserved you (pl.) from the enemies?

7. When she became pregnant, she was brought to her sister's house.

8. He finished the days of his service.

9. They named me after my mother.

10. They named the child Jesus.

11. I served him for seven years.

12. Every work you (ms. sg.) have done is nothing.

13. The devil brought him to the wilderness.

14. Why didn't you (pl.) understand my teachings?

15. I memorized the whole book.

16. Who did you (ms. sg.) summon?

17. How did you (pl.) find me?

18. Where did you (ms. sg.) find this book?

19. Of what sort is this teaching?


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Lesson 18: Exercises (pp.74-75)


1. His work was finished.

2. Our souls will fill with joy.

3. I do not believe you (ms. sg.).

4. I will hide in the desert.

5. The devil tempted him for seven days.

6. The unclean spirit does not want to come out.

7. At that time, this whole world will be scattered.

8. The blind man said, "Pity me, my lord."

9. The time of his service finished.

10. We will not settle in this region.

11. I think that you (ms. sg.) are righteous.

12. The eyes of the blind will open.

13. Who do you (ms. sg.) think I am?

14. Why are you (pl.) consorting with men of this sort?

15. His fetters loosened from his feet.

16. The brothers hid from the king's soldiers.

17. Why are you (ms. sg.) rebuking me?

18. You (pl.) will not understand his parables.

19. They will not believe my words.

20. The enemies will surround our village.

21. The sky opened and a great light came out.

22. The woman began to weep.

23. Perhaps you (pl.) will be turned back.

24. The shepherds are guarding the sheep in the field.

25. His eyes closed in death.

26. They will settle near Jerusalem.

27. I will throw the meat to the dogs.

28. We will name him after his father.

29. We received the letter which you (ms. sg.) wrote to us.

30. Why are you (pl.) always fasting?

31. Her eyes filled with tears.

32. They are not on the road.

33. When he heard the sound, he looked.

34. I am weeping because my brother has died.

35. The dove alighted upon the platform.

36. They think that he is the Christ.

37. You (fm. sg.) do not know how to write.

38. Rebuke them over their sins.

39. We are looking forward to that day.

40. He did not want to fast.

41. The spirit came down upon him like a dove.

42. These are the words which he wrote in the book.

43. We do not know the words of David.

44. I know that you (ms. sg.) are the son of God.

45. They approached the gate and closed it.

46. She is not in the house.

47. We know that his teaching is great.

48. I will flee from them to the desert.

49. He became very hungry because he fasted for eight days.

50. Why is this poor widow walking behind me?

51. He began to speak with the crowd.

52. He turned away the poor.

53. I know you (ms. sg.). You are the devil.

54. Why are you (ms. sg.) tempting me like this?

55. They are not around him.

56. You (pl.) will know that it is because of you that I have done these things.

57. I will count the ships that are in the harbor.

58. When we wished to leave, they turned us back to our house.[14]


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Lesson 19: Exercises (pp.79-80)


A. 1. the stone which they are tying the boat to

2. the book which I want

3. the cloak which he is putting on

4. the prison which you (ms. sg.) will be thrown into

5. the water which is filling our boat

6. the men who will run to the desert

7. the region which we are in

8. the ones who will follow him

9. the letter which I will write to you (ms. sg.)

10. the road on which they are walking

11. the teacher who you (pl.) do not know

12. the ones who will stand in his presence

13. the brother who we will make a monk

14. the king who we are fleeing from

15. he who is opening the eyes of the blind

16. the men he is consorting with

17. the words which I want to hear

18. the authority which God will give him

19. the faith which I find in this woman

20. the dove which you (ms. sg.) will see

21. the tunic which you (pl.) are throwing away

22. the ones he will rebuke

23. the mystery which he will reveal to us

24. the house which the soldiers will burn

25. the teacher who I will follow

26. the enemies who are surrounding our city

27. the platform which he will stand on

28. the things which are tempting you (pl.)

29. the fire which God will cast upon the earth

30. the voice which you (fm. sg.) hear

31. the soldiers who will turn you (ms. sg.) back

32. the new cloak which she will buy

33. the ones who are bowing in your (ms. sg.) presence

34. the scripture which I believe

35. the money which the boy will find

36. the man who is looking in at us

37. the sign which will be revealed

38. the woman who he loves

39. the form in which he is revealing himself

40. the days in which you (pl.) will fast


B. 1. Don't change any of the words which you (ms. sg.) will find in this book.

2. A great mystery was revealed to you (pl.).

3. On that day the words of our Lord will become clear.

4. The devil changed himself into the form of an angel of light.

5. He approached the king, bowed, and said no words.

6. What is this sound I hear?

7. Stand with me against him.

8. He put on the old tunic which I threw away.

9. Where did you (ms. sg.) find this old book?

10. They stood in the presence of the great king.

11. The monk said, "Arise, my child. Do not bow like this."

12. You (pl.) will see the things which you have not seen until now.

13. You (ms. sg.) will be burned in a great fire on that day.

14. They arose and went back up to their village.

15. He did not get up on their boat again.

16. Do not repeat these things to anyone.


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Lesson 20: Exercises (pp.84-85)


A. 1. after the young boy went away

2. as these mysteries were revealed[15]

3. as the priest stood in the entrance of the temple

4. after you (fm. sg.) wrote them in the book

5. as his body was thrown onto the fire

6. after we consoled them

7. while the devil tempted him with a great temptation

8. after he sent his beloved son to us

9. after he revealed himself to his disciples

10. after I bowed in his presence

11. as he drank from the old cup

12. after the soldiers burned our houses


B. 1. It is necessary for us always to do what is proper.

2. These are the words which you (ms. sg.) will write to him.

3. The monk said, "Your (ms. sg.) faith is great, my child."

4. It is proper for us to serve him always.

5. It is necessary for us to stay here this year.

6. It was to speak with you (pl.) that he sent me to you.

7. Jesus said to him, "I want it."

8. It happened that as he saw these things he prostrated himself and became troubled.

9. It is impossible for me to serve you (ms. sg.).

10. It is necessary for you (ms. sg.) to console the boy's mother.

11. Who gave him the authority to do these deeds?

12. When he heard my words, he became troubled and pondered.

13. I want you (ms. sg.) to stay with me for three months.

14. It is proper for them to obey the words of their master.

15. It is possible for us to console him.

16. Where did you (pl.) find this old writing?

17. It is not necessary for us to reach the village today.

18. What will they do when they hear his voice?

19. His wicked teaching disturbed the archbishop very much.

20. Five small boats came in to the harbor.

21. It is proper for me to stay with you (fm. sg.).

22. We will entreat him to send it to us.

23. It is impossible to console the faithless.

24. It happened that when he understood their thoughts he began to rebuke them.

25. I said to him, "You (ms. sg.) are righteous."

26. They will ask him about the authority which he will give them.

27. It is not proper for them to come into the temple like this.

28. I hate you (ms. sg.) and your (ms. sg.) wicked words.

29. They asked a monk, "What is faith?"

30. It happened that after he left, they began to speak about the miracles which he performed in their midst.

31. Hate no man.

32. I begged him to answer me.

33. He did not allow them to say any words.

34. The two brothers answered him, "It was on the road that we saw him."

35. We will ask him about the four books of the gospel.


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Lesson 21: Exercises (pp.89-90)


A. 1. the region which we are in

2. the blessed virgin

3. the paralyzed old woman

4. the hidden words

5. the men who are ascribed to this region

6. the stone which is at the entrance of the tomb

7. the sin which is forgiven you (fm. sg.)

8. the commandments written in this book

9. the place in which they are reclining

10. the words which are known to us

11. our blessed ancestors

12. the consoled people

13. every word written in the law

14. the man in whose house we are reclined to eat

15. the stone which I was sitting upon

16. the affliction which we were under


B. 1. The teacher was consoling his students.

2. The boats were in the harbor.

3. We hated them very much.

4. The people / nation were serving him joyfully.

5. Why were you (pl.) thinking like this?

6. The heavens were filling with light.

7. This church will endure forever.

8. Their house was constructed in the hill country.

9. It is necessary for you (ms. sg.) to flee hurriedly.

10. His son was paralyzed.

11. It happened that suddenly they heard a great voice.

12. The priest was very troubled.

13. These are truly his words.

14. We were not full.

15. It was on account of the miracles which he performed that they became troubled.

16. All your (ms. sg.) sins are forgiven you.

17. This world will not last.

18. His work was truly finished.

19. John was in the desert.

20. They were bowing in the presence of the king.

21. Serve him very joyfully.

22. The doors of the great temple were closed.

23. It is proper for you (pl.) to obey these commandments.

24. When we heard his greeting, we hurried to him.

25. I was sitting on the shore of the sea.

26. It is impossible for me to answer you (ms. sg.).

27. Once, we were walking on the road to the city.

28. It happened that when they asked him, he answered them anxiously.

29. We will bless his name forever.

30. This illness paralyzed his feet.

31. Now I know that you (ms. sg.) are the Christ.

32. This is truly the hour of his death.

33. Immediately, they ran onto the shore.

34. We have not seen him again until now.

35. I will stay with him for seven days.

36. I never spoke with some of this type.


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Lesson 22: Exercises (pp.94-95)


A. 1. We have no peace here.

2. My father has eight boats.

3. I have a little money.

4. He has many books.

5. They have six sheep.

6. They don't have bread.

7. He has an old cloak.

8. Do you (fm. sg.) have a husband?

9. She has seven children.

10. I have a new tunic.


B. 1. This bed is mine. It is not yours (ms. sg.).

2. my boat and that of my brother

3. the matters of the festival

4. his tomb and those of his ancestors

5. my bread and that of my friends

6. This sword is yours (ms. sg.).

7. These cups are theirs.

8. The rope is ours.

9. our house and that of the widow

10. The gold is not yours (fm. sg.).


C. 1. And immediately the sick man became well.

2. Your (fm. sg.) name will become hallowed from now to eternity.

3. The man increased in his days (i.e., he got older).

4. We returned to Egypt hurriedly.

5. The task became very difficult for us.

6. It is not easy for us to tolerate these difficulties.

7. He did not ever drink wine in his whole life.

8. The heart of the king of Egypt became hardened against them.

9. Your (ms. sg.) children are well.

10. His words and his works are harsh.

11. It is difficult for me to believe your (ms. sg.) words and those of your friends.

12. He became filled with the holy spirit.

13. When we reached the city, my heart became relieved.

14. Write to us about your (ms. sg.) health.

15. I will bless your (ms. sg.) holy name.

16. Our enemies are many.

17. My life is finished.

18. The door of his house is open.

19. His name is great in this whole region.

20. His throne was set upon the platform.


D. 1. Our horses are hungry.

2. Jesus was mounted upon a donkey.

3. His wife is pregnant.

4. They were staying with their relatives.

5. Their sheep were in the field.

6. The hand of the Lord was with him.

7. The day of her labor was at hand.

8. The governor is coming to Alexandria.

9. He was in the deserts until the day of his appearance to / in Israel.

10. Many men were running on the road.

11. I am not hungry.

12. They were both righteous in the presence of God.

13. The shepherds are going to the village.

14. There are many fish in the sea.

15. The monk was sitting down in his cell.

16. The soldiers are riding on the boat.

17. The priest was praying when I came in.

18. A great sword was in his hands.

19. The law of the Lord endures forever.

20. When he saw that she was pregnant, he brought her to his house.


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Lesson 23: Exercises (pp.98-100)


A. 1. a dead dog

2. a synagogue built beside the marketplace

3. a man living in the desert

4. a slave who does not obey his master

5. a little boy who fights with his brother

6. an old woman who is paralyzed

7. a hardened heart

8. a peace which is not enduring

9. a pregnant woman

10. some poor people who are hungry

11. a road which is not easy

12. a holy spirit

13. the grain which is in the barn

14. a numerous crowd

15. a soldier riding on a horse


B. 1. true words

2. an iron door

3. a wooden cross

4. a stone house

5. iron fetters

6. the repentant words / the words of repentance

7. my dwelling-place

8. an angelic form

9. the true faith

10. a fiery sword / a sword of fire

11. a divine mystery

12. our refectory

13. some enemy soldiers

14. a milk-cup / a cup of milk

15. a guardhouse


C. 1. As we were sitting in the market, we saw the governor approaching.

2. I will stay here, expecting him on the day of the Lord.

3. As the brothers were walking to the monastery, they found a dead man on the ground.

4. They continued bringing the grain to the barn.

5. Stop! (pl.) I do not want to hear words of this sort.

6. We saw him leaving the monastery.

7. We have no grain in our barn, but we have much wood.

8. Listen to the words of my mouth, because they are true.

9. I saw a dog carrying a little dove in its mouth.

10. All the ones who dwell in the region of the Jordan came to him.

11. These are the names of the brothers who are ascribed to Egypt (i.e., who are Egyptian).

12. I didn't know that these books were yours (ms. sg.).

13. When we were near the city, we saw a numerous crowd running out through the gate.

14. Walking beside the temple, he saw a poor blind man selling his handicraft.

15. It is impossible for us to cast out unclean demons.

16. He stopped writing and glanced at the door of his cell.

17. It is necessary for us to depart from here.

18. She kept weeping over the death of her beloved husband.

19. He stopped bringing us his handiwork.

20. Jesus, perfect in the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, walking in the spirit in the wilderness for many days, being tempted by the devil, and he did not eat anything in those days. When they were completed, he became hungry.

21. I sat down writing for three hours.

22. They kept weeping for the whole night.

23. We did not continue praying when we heard these things.

24. Immediately, she ceased being sick and became well.

25. I stopped giving bread to them.

26. He spoke with them, rebuking them.

27. The ones who do not obey his commandments have no salvation.

28. They stood beside his cross, weeping.

29. He rebuked them, saying, "Tell no man about this thing."


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Lesson 24: Exercises (p.104)


A. 1. some women who were washing some cloaks

2. the form into which he changed himself

3. a woman whose husband loved her very much

4. a widow whose son was ill

5. the crowd which was standing around him

6. the mystery which will be revealed

7. the prophet who the crowd killed

8. an exalted / high mountain

9. a great light coming down from the heights

10. a completely prepared people

11. a teacher who we revere

12. the grain which the ass was eating some of

13. the chosen disciples of our Lord

14. a wicked king

15. an empty cup

16. the great festival for which the monks were preparing

17. the man who they killed on the road

18. the wood which I threw onto the fire

19. a slave bowing in the presence of his master

20. the ones who were coming down to the Jordan


B. 1. the twelve apostles

2. these three disciples

3. fourteen monasteries

4. seven demons

5. eight empty houses

6. ten great authorities

7. twelve women

8. fifteen days

9. eleven years

10. eleven months


C. 1. To whom does he compare you (ms. sg.)?

2. Where is my new tunic?

3. You (fm. sg.) will be exalted over all the women of this world.

4. Choose four men for yourself (ms. sg.).

5. When that year passed, they returned to their village.

6. On that day, you (pl.) will be ashamed about these wicked deeds.

7. He fell onto the ground and didn't move.

8. To what did he compare them?

9. It is because of his mercy that these things are acceptable to our Lord.

10. It is because of the thing that I did against those of his village that he wants to kill me.

11. An evil day is coming.

12. Where are our companions?

13. He touched his mouth with his finger.

14. We will bless your (ms. sg.) exalted name.

15. It is a little child that he is like.

16. Afterwards, the brothers returned to Scetis.

17. Why do you (ms. sg.) want to kill these men?

18. What are you (pl.) preparing yourselves for?

19. They killed everyone who was living in the village and the surrounding region.

20. They found the table prepared.


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Lesson 25: Exercises (pp.109-110)


1. The vineyard isn't far from the village.

2. Having destroyed the city, they departed.

3. It is necessary for you (ms. sg.) to prepare him a bedroom.

4. They stood the children, bound, in the presence of the governor.

5. Come (pl.) and hear his teaching.

6. I was standing at a distance looking at the crowd.

7. I will go and find him.

8. The brothers were bringing the fruit to the city to sell it in the marketplace.

9. The enemy soldiers were about to strike him.

10. The bird flew to the sky and settled upon a branch of the tree.

11. These are the words which he wrote on the ground with his finger.

12. The lame man having risen, he went away rejoicing.

13. He had a little boy who was paralyzed.

14. He will be seized and thrown into the prison.

15. Their king was faithless.

16. You (ms. sg.) will seek me on that day, and you will not find me.

17. I am not worthy to be chosen.

18. We found the vineyard destroyed.

19. Three months having passed, she returned to her house.

20. It was impossible for him to catch up to his companions.

21. Having become angry at his brother, he rose up against him and killed him.

22. The birds of the sky were eating some of the grapes.

23. We saw his boat sinking down in the sea.

24. It was to destroy us that he came.

25. As I was about to lie down, my slave brought me your (ms. sg.) letter.

26. They climbed up hurriedly to the roof.

27. There was a wise king who had three sons.[16]

28. I saw a large bird on a grape-vine.

29. We will see and understand and be very ashamed.

30. He touched his fingers to the eyes of the blind man.

31. Immediately he stopped being angry.

32. They came to Bethlehem because they had heard about the birth of our savior.

33. My boat sank in the river.

34. There was a great disturbance in the city.

35. The birds settled onto the roof of the house.

36. They were worthy to receive the holy spirit in their heart.

37. They were taking the branches and throwing them on the road.


Reading selection (p.110):

There was someone in Egypt who had a paralyzed son. And he brought him and set him in the cell of Apa Makarios, and he left him weeping near the door, and he went to a distance. The monk looked and saw the little boy weeping, and he said to him, "Who brought you here?" And he said, "It was my father. He brought me, he cast me away, and he went." The monk said to him, "Get up and run and catch up to him." And immediately, he became well, and he arose, he caught up to his father, and in this way they went to their house rejoicing.


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Lesson 26: Exercises (pp.114-115)


1. This tree does not produce fruit.

2. He is not able to destroy the souls of the righteous.

3. It is this teacher who we are being taught by.

4. He repented, saying, "I have sinned, my Lord."

5. We will exalt him, praising his holy name.

6. What will I do?

7. When he reached twelve years of age, his parents brought him to the temple.

8. Write to me and tell me about the things which you (ms. sg.) are doing there.

9. And immediately, the grapevine produced much fruit.

10. Where in this world will we find rest?

11. Take heed for these children and guard them from evil.[17]

12. He was teaching them the Lord's commandments.

13. I do not want to have dealings with those of this sort.

14. I did not ever sin against you (pl.).

15. It is he who will give us rest.

16. The bird was not able to fly away.

17. Having come into the temple, he offered up a sacrifice.

18. They will bless him and praise him.

19. At that time, you (pl.) will be able to bring the dead back to life.

20. This is the place in which she will give birth to her son.

21. It is appropriate for you (pl.) to be concerned about the widows and the orphans.

22. He got for himself everything which his heart desired.

23. What did you (ms. sg.) do in the city?

24. What shall I teach you (pl.)?

25. His words shamed them and they ran away.

26. The brother did not have dealings with the men of the region.

27. Having completed his work, he returned to his village.

28. We spent thirteen years serving him.

29. We will send you (ms. sg.) ahead to prepare us a place.

30. Why have you (pl.) done this?

31. I became a soldier when Herod was governor.

32. When he woke her up, she immediately became well.

33. Since he is old, it is impossible for him to go to a far city.

34. They will come and destroy this temple.

35. Do not forget the commandments of the law.

36. They caught up to / seized him walking with his disciples.

37. Don't forget my teaching.

38. I want to tell you (ms. sg.) that your son is safe.

39. Who provided the means for you (pl.) to build a house like this?

40. I will remember you (ms. sg.) and not forget you.

41. You (ms. sg.) will become master over these wicked thoughts.

42. His disciples lifted him onto the boat.

43. When they heard these things, they marveled.

44. What will provide us the means to live forever?

45. Bow to me, and you (ms. sg.) will become lord over all these authorities.

46. When we remembered him, we began to weep.

47. When the day of her labor was fulfilled, she bore a son to her husband.

48. The works of the righteous will shame the wicked.

49. You (pl.) will know and will marvel.

50. He is not a god of the dead but (of) the living.

51. This is a great wonder.


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Lesson 27: Exercises (pp.120-121)


1. I wrote these words to you (ms. sg.) so that you would not forget anything which I taught you.

2. They were offering up many sacrifices so that God would hear their prayers.

3. They hurried to the governor so that they might tell him about the things that happened in the village.

4. You (pl.) shall not listen to the words of the ignorant.

5. They think that their gods are immortal.

6. They both returned to the house so that they might help their old father.

7. The children of the priest were disobedient.

8. When will we cast away this perishable body?

9. Their master ordered his slaves to bring the soldiers in to him.

10. You (ms. sg.) shall not steal the belongings of your brothers.

11. They came stealthily in the night and took his body out of the tomb.

12. I am powerless in the presence of a man like this.

13. Your (ms. sg.) brother is gluttonous.

14. Who will testify to the true faith?

15. These soldiers are fearless.

16. The angel came to me in a dream in the night and told me about these things.

17. Immediately, the sky became dark.

18. Who cured you (ms. sg.) of your illness?

19. This man is a wise physician.

20. Don't be afraid, my child.

21. And immediately, the devil became invisible.

22. His kingdom is great.

23. In his old age, he did not remember the days of his childhood.

24. We did not believe their testimony.

25. They became amazed, and a great fear arose in their midst.

26. He commanded them to bind the child and throw him into the prison.

27. You (ms. sg.) are desirous of empty glory.

28. Where are you (ms. sg.) from? I am an Egyptian.

29. She was not able to awaken him.

30. They are fearful slaves.

31. It is impossible for me to speak with you (pl.) in Greek.

32. Tell him to send the bread to the poor of the city.

33. I will stay with you (ms. sg.) so that they will not kill me.

34. The Lord's law is indestructible.

35. It was in an ineffable mystery, which not any man in the whole world will understand, that Mary my mother gave birth to me.

36. They all became filled with anger in the synagogue as they heard these things.

37. Tell this stone to become bread.

38. They brought a great doctor to heal the child, but he was not able to heal him.


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Lesson 28: Exercises (pp.127-128)


1. Who is this man of God who is called John?

2. He himself will come to us tomorrow.

3. We found him walking by himself to the monastery.

4. Some believed him, but others did not believe.

5. The righteous do not listen to the words of the sinners.

6. The monks used to sell their handicrafts in those days.

7. A great crowd was gathered at the entrance of his house.

8. Don't blame me, my father. I didn't do anything.

9. In the evening the brother returned again to his cell.

10. No prophet is acceptable in his own village.

11. I myself will undertake to write the things which happened.

12. He tends to his children like a good father.

13. He said to me, "Shut up and go away."

14. You (ms. sg.) alone have done these things?

15. Who will rear us, our parents having died?

16. He remained silent and answered no one / nothing.

17. John himself continued dwelling in the desert.

18. When evening came, his disciples gathered in that place.

19. I do not want you (ms. sg.) to stay here. Return to your own house.

20. They began to build a great temple whose peak (head) would reach to the sky itself.

21. Three of them stayed with me, but the others returned to the city.

22. The other things are written in another book.

23. The sinners do not rear their children with the commandments of the Lord.

24. They implored him again.

25. Why are you (pl.) quarreling with one another like this?

26. At dawn the men of the city gathered at the marketplace.

27. She was afraid, because her husband found fault with her.

28. Who heals the doctor himself?

29. We found our brothers all well-fed, there not being one who was hungry among them.

30. We will keep praying until evening.


Reading selection (p.128):

One of our fathers sent his disciple to fetch water. But the well was very far from the cell. He forgot to bring the rope with him. And when he came upon the well, he realized that he had not brought the rope with him. He made a prayer and he called out, saying, "Oh cistern, it is my father who says, 'fill the bucket with water.'" And immediately, the water came upward, and the brother filled his jug, and the water settled again to its place.


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Lesson 29: Exercises (pp.133-134)


A. 1. Because of your (ms. sg.) humility of heart, he will have pity on you.

2. Who created the first man?

3. These men are more numerous than us.

4. This city is the more beautiful.

5. Blessed are the poor.

6. God created heaven and the earth.

7. Who is your (ms. sg.) neighbor?

8. This is the first commandment.

9. It is good to repent much.

10. You (ms. sg.) will be blessed more than any man.

11. He had a very beautiful wife.

12. She prepared him a little food.

13. Blessed is the one who has found favor in the presence of the Lord.

14. What can humble you (ms. sg.)?

15. What will we do to be saved?

16. Leave (pl.) me.


B. 1. If he finds me he will kill me.

2. If you (ms. sg.) choose me, then my brothers will become very angry.

3. If you (ms. sg.) let me go, I will return to Scetis.

4. If he commands you (ms. sg.) to do it, you must do it diligently.

5. If the soldiers come in to the city, they will kill us all.

6. If he hears your (ms. sg.) voice, he will leave.

7. If you (pl.) have more than enough bread for yourselves, you shall give it to the hungry. [18]

8. If the brothers return to the village in the evening, I will go with them.

9. If your (ms. sg.) father rebukes you, you shall not become angry.

10. If your (ms. sg.) brother does evil to you, you shall do good to him.

11. If your (ms. sg.) sister comes to me tomorrow, I will tell her about this thing.

12. If you (ms. sg.) were righteous, you would not act like this.

13. You (fm. sg.) have found favor before God.

14. If you (ms. sg.) had been here, my brother would not have died.

15. We give you (ms. sg.) thanks for your great mercy.

16. If I had understood that you (ms. sg.) were the king, I would have bowed in your presence, revering you.

17. If you (ms. sg.) continue being sinful, you will not be pitied on that day.

18. If they do good, they will find favor in the presence of the Lord.

19. If these afflictions had been prolonged, we would have died.

20. If they firmly believe, they will be consoled.

21. It is proper for us to thank him always.

22. It is necessary for us to help our neighbors.

23. It is difficult to write Coptic / Egyptian!

24. Behold, this great sign will appear to you.

25. If you (ms. sg.) were not my father, I would kill you.


Reading selection (p.134):

1. A monk said, "In every temptation, don't find fault with man, but find fault with yourself alone, saying, 'It is because of my sins that these things are happening to me.'"

2. One of the monks went up to another monk and said to his disciple, "Prepare us a few lentils." And he prepared it. He said, "Moisten some loaves for us." And he moistened them. And they kept speaking of spiritual matters all day and all night.

3. The monks said, "Even if an angel truly appears to you, do not receive it (to yourself), but humble yourself and say, 'I am not worthy to see the angel, having lived in sins."


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Lesson 30 (pp.144-145)


1. He said, "Let's go, the hour is at hand."

2. He caused his slave to prepare him a little bread.

3. He proclaimed the gospel in the whole region until he withdrew from it.

4. Don't let the birds eat any of these grapes.

5. All these things happened just as is written in the book.

6. In the twelfth year of his reign, our king died.

7. Come (pl.) to me and you will find rest.

8. It is necessary for us to speak with him before his mouth closes in death.

9. Let the Lord have pity on you (ms. sg.) and heal you.

10. A good tree produces good fruit.

11. I will tarry here until he returns.

12. Because of this, you (pl.) will receive the crown of glory in the heavens.

13. It is not proper for you (ms. sg.) to make your neighbor angry.

14. The rest began to weep all at once.

15. My spirit rejoiced over God my savior.

16. The sick man said to him, "My lord, it is possible for you (ms. sg.) to heal me."

17. You (pl.) shall not tell the things which you have seen to anyone.

18. The birds of the sky settle under the shade of that tree.

19. Let the one who has two tunics give one to the one who does not have (any).

20. We know that the Lord will visit us again on that day.

21. We did not do as he commanded us to do.

22. He caused the rest to sit down so that they might hear his teaching.

23. He will crown the ones who will testify about his holy name.

24. It is the power of the Almighty which will protect you (fm. sg.).

25. Listen to my words so that you (ms. sg.) will become strengthened firmly in the faith.

26. The Lord increased his mercy with her.

27. Male and female, the Lord created them.

28. It was to cleanse them from their sins that he came.

29. Let us rejoice and be glad and praise him.

30. We do not need your (ms. sg.) respected words.

31. He had some male slaves and some female slaves.

32. It is possible for God to increase every grace.

33. This is the name which the angel gave him before his mother conceived him in the womb.

34. This cloak is more valuable than that (one).

35. She was a widow until she was eighty-four years old.

36. They say, "We will receive a crown in the heavens because of these great afflictions."


Reading selection (p.145):

Our father who is in the heavens, may your name be hallowed. May your kingdom come. May your will happen as in heaven and happen also on the earth. Our bread which is coming, give to us today, and forgive us the things which are due from us, just as we ourselves also forgive the ones from whom we have things due, and do not take us into temptation, but save us from evil, for yours is the power and the glory forever. Amen.


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[1] "The gold with the books" is not intended here, nor similar constructions in ##17-20.

[2] "The woman and the man" is not correct here, since the period indicates that this is to be translated as a full sentence.

[3] Here and with similar constructions, avoid translations like "a fish is not in the harbor."

[4] Coptic uses the preposition meaning "at the entrance of" (hir=n) to describe locations actually in entrances; thus if one is at or in a door or other opening, the preposition hir=n will be used. We do not, however, in English, speak of "entrances of doors" - we just say, "door." So to avoid meaningless or barbaric constructions in English, Coptic expressions such as hir=m pro =m pyi should not be rendered literally as "at the entrance of the door of the house," but simply as we would phrase the idea in English: "at the door of the house," or something similar.

[5] For the exercises in the section above, I have translated relatives explicitly as English relatives: "the stone which is in the harbor," "the fish which are in the sea," and so on, in order to underscore their use and meaning. Coptic very frequently, however, uses relatives in lieu of adjectives or adjective phrases, and it would not be at all incorrect to translate these phrases as "the stone in the harbor," "the fish in the sea," and so on.

[6] "With" here is used in the sense of "along with," not in the sense of "by means of," which Coptic does not express with m=n.

[7] In most of the two-part pe sentences below, personal subjects are rendered as "he is, she is, they are." In all of these of cases, however, an impersonal, singular "it is" is equally possible in general and should be regarded as correct.

[8] The use of the 3rd person pl. verb here agrees with the sense of "crowd" even though the word is itself grammatically singular. We sometimes do similar things in English: "none of them are finished" ("none" is actually singular).

[9] The preposition h=n may be used to indicate instrument, and should be translated accordingly ("with, by means of") where necessary (e.g., C.28, immediately below).

[10] For this lesson, 3rd person pl. verbs will be rendered as passives where possible (and plausible) as well as actives. If only a passive translation is offered, this means that an active translation is incorrect (usually because of an explicit expression of agency). If only an active translation is offered, this means that a passive translation is not possible for the 3rd person pl. verb (often because the verb is intransitive). For subsequent lessons, bear in mind that many 3rd person pl. verbs are ambiguous - they will be rendered however seems most reasonable, but often an active translation will be possible where a passive one is given, and a passive translation possible where an active one is given.

[11] Literally: "They bound me, my feet and my hands, and left me there on the shore." The first person singular suffix on "bound" is redundant, and is being used because the actual things bound are "my" body parts.

[12] N.b.: not "the wise words." Cf. also A.27.

[13] There are several problems with the exercises in this lesson. First, the word Hap (pekHap) in item B.3 is almost certainly a typographical error for hat (pekHat). Second, Lambdin uses in these exercises (e.g., B.12), and from this point forward, the verb eire, as if it has been introduced as a vocabulary item, when, in fact, it has not. The verb means "to do, to act, to make, to behave," and should be memorized as core vocabulary at this point. Third, Lambdin uses a pl. indefinite pronoun in these exercises (e.g., A.1) that he has not introduced in the lesson: hoeine, which means "some [people, things, etc.]."

[14] For =nter=n-ouws, read =nter=nouws.

[15] Since temporal expressions with the inflected infinitive, particularly of the form h=m ptre-, gain their tense from context (absent here), any one of these expressions in section A could be correctly rendered as present tense: "as these mysteries are revealed," and so on.

[16] For ou=rro =ncabe, read ou=rro =n cabe.

[17] For ppe;oou, see 27.2, p.118.

[18] In item B.7, for tetnetaau, read etetnetaau.